TriForce

From CDOT Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search


GPU610/DPS915 | Student List | Group and Project Index | Student Resources | Glossary

TriForce

Team Members

  1. David Ferri, Sudoku Solver
  2. Vincent Terpstra, Julia Sets
  3. Raymond Kiguru, EasyBMP

Email All

Progress

Assignment 1: Sudoku Solver

Sudoku Solver Profiling

Source code from: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/sudoku-backtracking-7/

Original Code:

// A Backtracking program  in C++ to solve Sudoku problem 
#include <stdio.h> 
 
// UNASSIGNED is used for empty cells in sudoku grid 
#define UNASSIGNED 0 
 
// N is used for the size of Sudoku grid. Size will be NxN 
#define N 9 
 
// This function finds an entry in grid that is still unassigned 
bool FindUnassignedLocation(int grid[N][N], int &row, int &col); 
 
// Checks whether it will be legal to assign num to the given row, col 
bool isSafe(int grid[N][N], int row, int col, int num); 
 
/* Takes a partially filled-in grid and attempts to assign values to 
  all unassigned locations in such a way to meet the requirements 
  for Sudoku solution (non-duplication across rows, columns, and boxes) */
bool SolveSudoku(int grid[N][N]) 
{ 
   int row, col; 
 
   // If there is no unassigned location, we are done 
   if (!FindUnassignedLocation(grid, row, col)) 
      return true; // success! 
 
   // consider digits 1 to 9 
   for (int num = 1; num <= 9; num++) 
   { 
       // if looks promising 
       if (isSafe(grid, row, col, num)) 
       { 
           // make tentative assignment 
           grid[row][col] = num; 
 
           // return, if success, yay! 
           if (SolveSudoku(grid)) 
               return true; 
 
           // failure, unmake & try again 
           grid[row][col] = UNASSIGNED; 
       } 
   } 
   return false; // this triggers backtracking 
} 
 
/* Searches the grid to find an entry that is still unassigned. If 
   found, the reference parameters row, col will be set the location 
   that is unassigned, and true is returned. If no unassigned entries 
   remain, false is returned. */
bool FindUnassignedLocation(int grid[N][N], int &row, int &col) 
{ 
   for (row = 0; row < N; row++) 
       for (col = 0; col < N; col++) 
           if (grid[row][col] == UNASSIGNED) 
               return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether an assigned entry 
  in the specified row matches the given number. */
bool UsedInRow(int grid[N][N], int row, int num) 
{ 
   for (int col = 0; col < N; col++) 
       if (grid[row][col] == num) 
           return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether an assigned entry 
  in the specified column matches the given number. */
bool UsedInCol(int grid[N][N], int col, int num) 
{ 
   for (int row = 0; row < N; row++) 
       if (grid[row][col] == num) 
           return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether an assigned entry 
  within the specified 3x3 box matches the given number. */
bool UsedInBox(int grid[N][N], int boxStartRow, int boxStartCol, int num) 
{ 
   for (int row = 0; row < 3; row++) 
       for (int col = 0; col < 3; col++) 
           if (grid[row+boxStartRow][col+boxStartCol] == num) 
               return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether it will be legal to assign 
  num to the given row,col location. */
bool isSafe(int grid[N][N], int row, int col, int num) 
{ 
   /* Check if 'num' is not already placed in current row, 
      current column and current 3x3 box */
   return !UsedInRow(grid, row, num) && 
          !UsedInCol(grid, col, num) && 
          !UsedInBox(grid, row - row%3 , col - col%3, num)&& 
           grid[row][col]==UNASSIGNED; 
} 
 
/* A utility function to print grid  */
void printGrid(int grid[N][N]) 
{ 
   for (int row = 0; row < N; row++) 
   { 
      for (int col = 0; col < N; col++) 
            printf("%2d", grid[row][col]); 
       printf("\n"); 
   } 
} 
 
/* Driver Program to test above functions */
int main() 
{ 
   // 0 means unassigned cells 
   int grid[N][N] = {{3, 0, 6, 5, 0, 8, 4, 0, 0}, 
                     {5, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, 
                     {0, 8, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3, 1}, 
                     {0, 0, 3, 0, 1, 0, 0, 8, 0}, 
                     {9, 0, 0, 8, 6, 3, 0, 0, 5}, 
                     {0, 5, 0, 0, 9, 0, 6, 0, 0}, 
                     {1, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 5, 0}, 
                     {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 7, 4}, 
                     {0, 0, 5, 2, 0, 6, 3, 0, 0}}; 
   if (SolveSudoku(grid) == true) 
         printGrid(grid); 
   else
        printf("No solution exists"); 
 
   return 0; 
} 


Modified Version for 16x16 Puzzle:

// A Backtracking program  in C++ to solve Sudoku problem 
#include <stdio.h> 
 
// UNASSIGNED is used for empty cells in sudoku grid 
#define UNASSIGNED 0 
 
// N is used for the size of Sudoku grid. Size will be NxN 
#define N 16 
 
// This function finds an entry in grid that is still unassigned 
bool FindUnassignedLocation(int grid[N][N], int &row, int &col); 
 
// Checks whether it will be legal to assign num to the given row, col 
bool isSafe(int grid[N][N], int row, int col, int num); 
 
/* Takes a partially filled-in grid and attempts to assign values to 
 all unassigned locations in such a way to meet the requirements 
 for Sudoku solution (non-duplication across rows, columns, and boxes) */
bool SolveSudoku(int grid[N][N]) 
{ 
   int row, col; 
 
   // If there is no unassigned location, we are done 
   if (!FindUnassignedLocation(grid, row, col)) 
      return true; // success! 
 
   // consider digits 1 to 16
   for (int num = 1; num <= 16; num++) 
   { 
       // if looks promising 
       if (isSafe(grid, row, col, num)) 
       { 
           // make tentative assignment 
           grid[row][col] = num; 
 
           // return, if success, yay! 
           if (SolveSudoku(grid)) 
               return true; 
 
           // failure, unmake & try again 
           grid[row][col] = UNASSIGNED; 
       } 
   } 
   return false; // this triggers backtracking 
} 
 
/* Searches the grid to find an entry that is still unassigned. If 
  found, the reference parameters row, col will be set the location 
  that is unassigned, and true is returned. If no unassigned entries 
  remain, false is returned. */
bool FindUnassignedLocation(int grid[N][N], int &row, int &col) 
{ 
   for (row = 0; row < N; row++) 
       for (col = 0; col < N; col++) 
           if (grid[row][col] == UNASSIGNED) 
               return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether an assigned entry 
  in the specified row matches the given number. */
bool UsedInRow(int grid[N][N], int row, int num) 
{ 
   for (int col = 0; col < N; col++) 
       if (grid[row][col] == num) 
           return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether an assigned entry 
  in the specified column matches the given number. */
bool UsedInCol(int grid[N][N], int col, int num) 
{ 
   for (int row = 0; row < N; row++) 
       if (grid[row][col] == num) 
           return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether an assigned entry 
   within the specified 4x4 box matches the given number. */
 bool UsedInBox(int grid[N][N], int boxStartRow, int boxStartCol, int num) 
 { 
   for (int row = 0; row < 4; row++) 
       for (int col = 0; col < 4; col++) 
           if (grid[row+boxStartRow][col+boxStartCol] == num) 
               return true; 
   return false; 
 } 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether it will be legal to assign 
   num to the given row,col location. */
   bool isSafe(int grid[N][N], int row, int col, int num) 
{ 
   /* Check if 'num' is not already placed in current row, 
      current column and current 4x4 box */
   return !UsedInRow(grid, row, num) &&
           !UsedInCol(grid, col, num) &&
           !UsedInBox(grid, row - row%4 , col - col%4, num)&& 
           grid[row][col]==UNASSIGNED; 
} 
 
/* A utility function to print grid  */
void printGrid(int grid[N][N]) 
{ 
   for (int row = 0; row < N; row++) 
   { 
      for (int col = 0; col < N; col++) 
            printf("%2d", grid[row][col]); 
       printf("\n"); 
   } 
} 
 
/* Driver Program to test above functions */
int main() 
{ 
   //https://puzzlemadness.co.uk/16by16giantsudoku/
   // 0 means unassigned cells 
   int grid[N][N] = {{0,  8,   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  3,  0,  0,  0, 10,  9,  7, 11, 0}, 
                     {0,  9,  15, 13,  0, 10,  0,  0,  2,  6,  8, 16,  0,  0,  0, 0}, 				  
                     {0,  0,  16,  0, 15,  0,  8,  0,  9,  0,  0,  0,  6,  0,  2, 0}, 				  
                     {1,  0,   2,  0,  9, 11,  4,  6, 15,  3,  5,  7,  0,  0, 12, 0}, 					  
                     {16, 6,   4,  0,  5,  2,  0,  0,  1,  0,  0,  0, 11,  0,  0, 12},						  
                     {5,  11,  0,  0,  0,  3,  0, 15,  0, 16,  0, 13,  0,  1,  0, 8}, 					  
                     {0,  0,   3,  0,  0,  6, 11, 14,  0,  5,  7,  0,  0,  9,  0, 0}, 				  
                     {0,  0,   0, 14,  8,  0, 10,  0,  0, 11, 12,  0,  0,  0,  0, 0},				  
                     {0,  7,  13,  0,  0,  0,  0, 12,  0,  8,  9,  0,  0,  0,  3, 0},				  
                     {0,  0,  11,  9,  0,  7,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0, 12,  0,  8, 16, 5},
                     {0,  0,  10,  0, 11, 13,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  3, 12,  0,  6, 0},				  
                     {0,  5,   0,  0, 10, 15,  0,  1,  7,  2,  0,  0, 14, 11,  0, 0},				  
                     {0,  0,   5,  0,  0, 12, 14,  0,  0, 10,  0,  0, 15,  0,  0, 4},					  
                     {9,  0,  14,  6,  0,  0,  1,  0, 16,  0,  2,  0,  3,  0, 13, 0},					  
                     {8,  13,  0,  4,  0,  0,  0,  0, 12,  7,  3,  0,  0,  6,  0, 0},				  
                     {0,  16, 12,  0,  0,  5,  0,  9,  0, 13, 14,  4,  1,  0,  0, 0}}; 
   if (SolveSudoku(grid) == true) 
         printGrid(grid); 
   else
        printf("No solution exists"); 
 
   return 0; 
}

Modified Version for 25x25 puzzle:

// A Backtracking program  in C++ to solve Sudoku problem 
#include <stdio.h> 
 
// UNASSIGNED is used for empty cells in sudoku grid 
#define UNASSIGNED 0 
 
// N is used for the size of Sudoku grid. Size will be NxN 
#define N 25 
 
// This function finds an entry in grid that is still unassigned 
bool FindUnassignedLocation(int grid[N][N], int &row, int &col); 
 
// Checks whether it will be legal to assign num to the given row, col 
bool isSafe(int grid[N][N], int row, int col, int num); 
 
/* Takes a partially filled-in grid and attempts to assign values to 
 all unassigned locations in such a way to meet the requirements 
 for Sudoku solution (non-duplication across rows, columns, and boxes) */
bool SolveSudoku(int grid[N][N]) 
{ 
   int row, col; 
 
   // If there is no unassigned location, we are done 
   if (!FindUnassignedLocation(grid, row, col)) 
      return true; // success! 
 
   // consider digits 1 to 25
   for (int num = 1; num <= 25; num++) 
   { 
       // if looks promising 
       if (isSafe(grid, row, col, num)) 
       { 
           // make tentative assignment 
           grid[row][col] = num; 
 
           // return, if success, yay! 
           if (SolveSudoku(grid)) 
               return true; 
 
           // failure, unmake & try again 
           grid[row][col] = UNASSIGNED; 
       } 
   } 
   return false; // this triggers backtracking 
} 
 
/* Searches the grid to find an entry that is still unassigned. If 
  found, the reference parameters row, col will be set the location 
  that is unassigned, and true is returned. If no unassigned entries 
  remain, false is returned. */
bool FindUnassignedLocation(int grid[N][N], int &row, int &col) 
{ 
   for (row = 0; row < N; row++) 
       for (col = 0; col < N; col++) 
           if (grid[row][col] == UNASSIGNED) 
               return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether an assigned entry 
  in the specified row matches the given number. */
bool UsedInRow(int grid[N][N], int row, int num) 
{ 
   for (int col = 0; col < N; col++) 
       if (grid[row][col] == num) 
           return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether an assigned entry 
  in the specified column matches the given number. */
bool UsedInCol(int grid[N][N], int col, int num) 
{ 
   for (int row = 0; row < N; row++) 
       if (grid[row][col] == num) 
           return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether an assigned entry 
  within the specified 5x5 box matches the given number. */
bool UsedInBox(int grid[N][N], int boxStartRow, int boxStartCol, int num) 
{ 
   for (int row = 0; row < 5; row++) 
       for (int col = 0; col < 5; col++) 
           if (grid[row+boxStartRow][col+boxStartCol] == num) 
               return true; 
   return false; 
} 
 
/* Returns a boolean which indicates whether it will be legal to assign 
  num to the given row,col location. */
bool isSafe(int grid[N][N], int row, int col, int num) 
{ 
   /* Check if 'num' is not already placed in current row, 
      current column and current 5x5 box */
   return !UsedInRow(grid, row, num) && 
          !UsedInCol(grid, col, num) && 
          !UsedInBox(grid, row - row%5 , col - col%5, num)&& 
           grid[row][col]==UNASSIGNED; 
} 
 
/* A utility function to print grid  */
void printGrid(int grid[N][N]) 
{ 
   for (int row = 0; row < N; row++) 
   { 
      for (int col = 0; col < N; col++) 
            printf("%2d", grid[row][col]); 
       printf("\n"); 
   } 
} 
 
/* Driver Program to test above functions */
int main() 
{ 
   //http://www.sudoku-download.net/sudoku_25x25.php
   // 0 means unassigned cells 
   int grid[N][N] = {{1,  0,   4,  0, 25,  0, 19,  0,  0,  10,  21, 8,  0,  14, 0,  6,  12,   9,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  5}, 
                     {5,  0,  19, 23, 24,  0, 22,  12,  0,  0,  16, 6,  0,  20,  0,  18,  0,   25,  14,  13,  10, 11,  0,  1,  15}, 
                     {0,  0,   0,  0,  0,  0,  21,  5,  0,  20,  11,  10,  0,  1,  0,  4,  8,   24,  23,  15,  18,  0,  16,  22,  19},				  
                     {0,  7,  21,  8, 18,  0,  0,  0, 11,  0,  5,  0,  0,  24, 0,  0,  0,   17,  22,  1,  9,  6,  25,  0,  0}, 					  
                     {0, 13,  15,  0, 22, 14,  0,  18,  0,  16,  0,  0, 0,  4,  0,  0,  0,   19,  0,  0,  0,  24,  20,  21,  17},				  
                     {12, 0,  11,  0,  6,  0,  0, 0,  0, 15,  0, 0,  0,  0,  21,  25,  19,   0,  4,  0,  22,  14,  0,  20,  0},				  
                     {8,  0,   0, 21,  0, 16, 0, 0,  0,  2,  0,  3,  0,  0,  0,  0,  17,   23,  18,  22,  0,  0,  0,  24,  6},  
                     {4,  0,  14, 18,  7,  9, 0,  22,  21, 19, 0,  0,  0,  2,  0,  5,  0,   0,  0,  6,  16,  15,  0,  11,  12},				  
                     {22, 0,  24,  0, 23,  0,  0, 11,  0,  7,  0,  0,  4,  0,  14,  0,  2,   12,  0,  8,  5,  19,  0,  25,  9},
             	      {20, 0,   0,  0,  5,  0,  0,  0,  0,  17,  9, 0,  12,  18, 0,  1,  0,   0,  7,  24,  0,  0,  0,  13,  4},					  
                     {13, 0,   0,  5,  0,  2,  23,  14,  4,  18,  22,  0, 17,  0,  0,  20,  0,   1,  9,  21,  12,  0,  0,  8,  11},					  
                     {14, 23,  0, 24,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0, 20, 25,  0,  3,  4,   13,  0,  11,  21,  9,  5,  18,  22},			  
	              {7,  0,   0, 11, 17, 20, 24,  0,  0, 0,  3,  4, 1,  12,  0,  0,  6,   14,  0,  5,  25,  13,  0,  0,  0},	  
		      {0,  0,  16,  9,  0, 17,  11,  7, 10,  25,  0,  0,  0,  13, 6,  0,  0,   18,  0,  0,  19,  4,  0,  0,  20},   
		      {6,  15,  0, 19,  4, 13,  0,  0, 5,  0,  18,  11,  0,  0,  9,  8,  22,   16,  25,  10,  7,  0,  0,  0,  0},  
                     {0,  0,   0,  2,  0,  0, 10, 19,  3,  0,  1,  0,  22,  9,  4,  11,  15,   0,  20,  0,  0,  8,  23,  0,  25}, 				       
		      {0,  24,  8, 13,  1,  0, 0,  4,  20, 0, 17,  14,  0,  0,  18,  0,  16,   22,  5,  0,  11,  0,  10,  0,  0}, 
                     {23, 10,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0, 0,  18,  0,  6,  0,  16,  0,  0,  17,  1,   0,  13,  0,  0,  3,  19,  12,  0}, 
		      {25,  5,  0, 14, 11,  0,  17,  0,  8,  24,  13, 0,  19,  23, 15,  9,  0,   0,  12,  0,  20,  0,  22,  0,  7},					  
		      {0,   0, 17,  4,  0, 22,  15,  0,  23,  11,  12,  25, 0,  0,  0,  0,  18,   8,  0,  7,  0,  0,  14,  0,  13},				  
		      {19,  6, 23, 22,  8,  0,  0,  1,  25,  4,  14,  2, 0, 3,  7,  13,  10,   11,  16,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0},				  
		      {0,   4,  0, 17,  0,  3, 0,  24,  0, 8,  20,  23, 11,  10,  25,  22,  0,   0,  0,  12,  13,  2,  18,  6,  0},					  
		      {0,   0,  7, 16,  0,  0,  6,  17, 2,  21,  0,  18,  0,  0, 0,  19,  0,   0,  8,  0,  0,  0,  0,  4,  0},					  
		      {18,  9, 25,  1,  2, 11,  0,  0, 13,  22,  4,  0,  21,  0,  5,  0,  23,   7,  0,  0,  15,  0,  3,  0,  8},		  
		      {0,  21, 10,  0,  0, 12,  0,  20,  16, 0, 19,  0,  0,  0,  0,  15,  14,   4,  2,  18,  23,  25,  11,  7,  0}}; 
   if (SolveSudoku(grid) == true) 
         printGrid(grid); 
   else
        printf("No solution exists"); 
 
   return 0; 
} 

Obtaining flat profiles and call graphs on matrix environment:

$ g++ sudokuC.cpp  -std=c++0x -o Sudoku
$ ./Sudoku
3 1 6 5 7 8 4 9 2
5 2 9 1 3 4 7 6 8
4 8 7 6 2 9 5 3 1
2 6 3 4 1 5 9 8 7
9 7 4 8 6 3 1 2 5
8 5 1 7 9 2 6 4 3
1 3 8 9 4 7 2 5 6
6 9 2 3 5 1 8 7 4
7 4 5 2 8 6 3 1 9
$ gprof -p -b ./Sudoku gmon.out > 9x9.flt
$ gprof -q -b ./Sudoku gmon.out > 9x9.clg
$  g++ sudokuC16.cpp  -std=c++0x -pg -o Sudoku16
$ ./Sudoku16
12 8 6 516 1 2 31314 410 9 71115
11 915131210 7 5 2 6 816 414 1 3
 4 316 71514 813 91211 1 6 5 210
 114 210 911 4 615 3 5 7 8131216
16 6 415 5 213 7 1 910 811 31412
 511 9 2 4 312151416 613 7 110 8
1012 3 8 1 61114 4 5 7 216 91513
13 1 714 8 91016 3111215 2 4 5 6
 2 71316 6 4 51211 8 9141015 3 1
 6 411 914 7 3 210 1151213 816 5
141510 11113 9 8 5 416 312 2 6 7
 3 5 812101516 1 7 213 61411 4 9
 7 2 5 313121411 610 1 91516 8 4
 91014 6 7 8 1 41615 2 5 3121311
 813 1 4 216151012 7 311 5 6 914
15161211 3 5 6 9 81314 4 110 7 2
$ gprof -p -b ./Sudoku16 gmon.out > 16x16.flt
$ gprof -q -b ./Sudoku16 gmon.out > 16x16.clg
$  g++ sudokuC25.cpp  -std=c++0x -pg -o Sudoku25
$ ./Sudoku25
 111 42025241915171021 8181422 612 9 316 2 71323 5
 5 2192324 82212 9 316 6 7201718212514131011 4 115
1714 9 6 32521 5 7201110 2 113 4 82423151812162219
16 721 818 4 2131123 51915241210201722 1 9 62514 3
101315122214 118 61623 925 4 3 7 51911 2 824202117
12 11110 6 513232415 716 817212519 3 4 92214 22018
 8191321 916 42512 215 3 511201417231822 110 724 6
 4171418 7 9 322211925 124 223 5132010 61615 81112
22 3241523182011 1 71013 4 61416 21221 8 5191725 9
2016 225 510 8 61417 922121819 11115 724 3232113 4
1325 3 510 22314 418221517192420 7 1 9211216 6 811
1423 124121916 815 6 2 7202510 3 413171121 9 51822
 7 818111720242122 9 3 4 11216 2 61419 52513151023
 22216 9211711 71025 8 51413 6122418152319 4 1 320
 6152019 41312 3 5 118112321 9 822162510 71724 214
211812 216 71019 313 12422 9 41115 6201417 823 525
 924 813 1 625 420121714 3 718231622 51911211015 2
231022 71521 5 91814 62016 81117 1 21325 4 3191224
25 5 61411 117 2 8241321192315 9 31012 420182216 7
 32017 4192215162311122510 5 22118 824 7 6 114 913
19 62322 81518 125 414 2 9 3 7131011162024 5121721
15 4 51714 3 72419 8202311102522 921 11213 218 616
1112 7162023 617 22124181315 11925 5 8 31422 9 410
18 925 1 21114101322 4122116 52423 7 6171520 319 8
242110 31312 92016 51917 622 81514 4 218232511 7 1
$ gprof -p -b ./Sudoku25 gmon.out > 25x25.flt
$ gprof -q -b ./Sudoku25 gmon.out > 25x25.clg


For 9x9 Sudoku Puzzle (3x3 squares)

Flat profile:
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
 no time accumulated

  %   cumulative   self              self     total           
 time   seconds   seconds    calls  Ts/call  Ts/call  name    
  0.00      0.00     0.00     6732     0.00     0.00  isSafe(int (*) [9], int, int, int)
  0.00      0.00     0.00     6732     0.00     0.00  UsedInRow(int (*) [9], int, int)
  0.00      0.00     0.00     2185     0.00     0.00  UsedInCol(int (*) [9], int, int)
  0.00      0.00     0.00     1078     0.00     0.00  UsedInBox(int (*) [9], int, int, int)
  0.00      0.00     0.00      770     0.00     0.00  FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [9], int&, int&)
  0.00      0.00     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  SolveSudoku(int (*) [9])
  0.00      0.00     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  printGrid(int (*) [9])
Call graph

granularity: each sample hit covers 2 byte(s) no time propagated

index % time    self  children    called     name
                0.00    0.00    6732/6732        SolveSudoku(int (*) [9]) [13]
[8]      0.0    0.00    0.00    6732         isSafe(int (*) [9], int, int, int) [8]
                0.00    0.00    6732/6732        UsedInRow(int (*) [9], int, int) [9]
                0.00    0.00    2185/2185        UsedInCol(int (*) [9], int, int) [10]
                0.00    0.00    1078/1078        UsedInBox(int (*) [9], int, int, int) [11]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00    6732/6732        isSafe(int (*) [9], int, int, int) [8]
[9]      0.0    0.00    0.00    6732         UsedInRow(int (*) [9], int, int) [9]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00    2185/2185        isSafe(int (*) [9], int, int, int) [8]
[10]     0.0    0.00    0.00    2185         UsedInCol(int (*) [9], int, int) [10]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00    1078/1078        isSafe(int (*) [9], int, int, int) [8]
[11]     0.0    0.00    0.00    1078         UsedInBox(int (*) [9], int, int, int) [11]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     770/770         SolveSudoku(int (*) [9]) [13]
[12]     0.0    0.00    0.00     770         FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [9], int&, int&) [12]
-----------------------------------------------
                                769             SolveSudoku(int (*) [9]) [13]
                0.00    0.00       1/1           main [6]
[13]     0.0    0.00    0.00       1+769     SolveSudoku(int (*) [9]) [13]
               0.00    0.00    6732/6732        isSafe(int (*) [9], int, int, int) [8]
               0.00    0.00     770/770         FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [9], int&, int&) [12]
                                769             SolveSudoku(int (*) [9]) [13]
-----------------------------------------------
               0.00    0.00       1/1           main [6]
[14]     0.0    0.00    0.00       1         printGrid(int (*) [9]) [14]
-----------------------------------------------
Index by function name
  [13] SolveSudoku(int (*) [9]) [11] UsedInBox(int (*) [9], int, int, int) [14] printGrid(int (*) [9])
  [12] FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [9], int&, int&) [10] UsedInCol(int (*) [9], int, int)
  [8] isSafe(int (*) [9], int, int, int) [9] UsedInRow(int (*) [9], int, int)


For 16x16 Sudoku Puzzle (4x4 squares) Puzzle from: [1]

Flat profile:
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
  %   cumulative   self              self     total           
 time   seconds   seconds    calls   s/call   s/call  name    
 39.04     15.00    15.00 28071636     0.00     0.00  FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [16], int&, int&)
 36.19     28.90    13.90 449145092     0.00     0.00  UsedInRow(int (*) [16], int, int)
 10.60     32.97     4.07 120354547     0.00     0.00  UsedInCol(int (*) [16], int, int)
  4.97     34.88     1.91 41212484     0.00     0.00  UsedInBox(int (*) [16], int, int, int)
  4.59     36.65     1.76        1     1.76    38.39  SolveSudoku(int (*) [16])
  4.55     38.39     1.75 449145092     0.00     0.00  isSafe(int (*) [16], int, int, int)
  0.01     38.40     0.01                             frame_dummy
  0.00     38.40     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  printGrid(int (*) [16])
Call graph

granularity: each sample hit covers 2 byte(s) for 0.03% of 36.85 seconds

index % time    self  children    called     name
                                                <spontaneous>
[1]    100.0    0.00   36.85                 main [1]
               1.93   34.93       1/1           SolveSudoku(int (*) [16]) [2]
               0.00    0.00       1/1           printGrid(int (*) [16]) [14]
-----------------------------------------------
                            28071635             SolveSudoku(int (*) [16]) [2]
                1.93   34.93       1/1           main [1]
[2]    100.0    1.93   34.93       1+28071635 SolveSudoku(int (*) [16]) [2]
                1.69   19.09 449145092/449145092     isSafe(int (*) [16], int, int, int) [3]
               14.14    0.00 28071636/28071636     FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [16], int&, int&) [4]
                             28071635             SolveSudoku(int (*) [16]) [2]
-----------------------------------------------
                1.69   19.09 449145092/449145092     SolveSudoku(int (*) [16]) [2]
[3]     56.4    1.69   19.09 449145092         isSafe(int (*) [16], int, int, int) [3]
               13.58    0.00 449145092/449145092     UsedInRow(int (*) [16], int, int) [5]
                3.54    0.00 120354547/120354547     UsedInCol(int (*) [16], int, int) [6]
                1.98    0.00 41212484/41212484     UsedInBox(int (*) [16], int, int, int) [7]
-----------------------------------------------
               14.14    0.00 28071636/28071636     SolveSudoku(int (*) [16]) [2]
[4]     38.4   14.14    0.00 28071636         FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [16], int&, int&) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
               13.58    0.00 449145092/449145092     isSafe(int (*) [16], int, int, int) [3]
[5]     36.8   13.58    0.00 449145092         UsedInRow(int (*) [16], int, int) [5]
-----------------------------------------------
                3.54    0.00 120354547/120354547     isSafe(int (*) [16], int, int, int) [3]
[6]      9.6    3.54    0.00 120354547         UsedInCol(int (*) [16], int, int) [6]
-----------------------------------------------
                1.98    0.00 41212484/41212484     isSafe(int (*) [16], int, int, int) [3]
[7]      5.4    1.98    0.00 41212484         UsedInBox(int (*) [16], int, int, int) [7]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00       1/1           main [1]
[14]     0.0    0.00    0.00       1         printGrid(int (*) [16]) [14]
-----------------------------------------------
Index by function name
  [2] SolveSudoku(int (*) [16]) [7] UsedInBox(int (*) [16], int, int, int) [14] printGrid(int (*) [16])
  [4] FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [16], int&, int&) [6] UsedInCol(int (*) [16], int, int)
  [3] isSafe(int (*) [16], int, int, int) [5] UsedInRow(int (*) [16], int, int)

For 25x25 Sudoku Puzzle (5x5 squares) Puzzle from: http://www.sudoku-download.net/sudoku_25x25.php

Flat profile:
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
  %   cumulative   self              self     total           
 time   seconds   seconds    calls  Ks/call  Ks/call  name    
 48.76   1052.18  1052.18 425478951     0.00     0.00  UsedInRow(int (*) [25], int, int)
 25.24   1596.81   544.63 876012758     0.00     0.00  FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [25], int&, int&)
 12.48   1866.03   269.21 590817023     0.00     0.00  UsedInCol(int (*) [25], int, int)
  4.83   1970.24   104.21 425478951     0.00     0.00  isSafe(int (*) [25], int, int, int)
  4.79   2073.51   103.27        1     0.10     2.17  SolveSudoku(int (*) [25])
  4.35   2167.39    93.89 1355081265     0.00     0.00  UsedInBox(int (*) [25], int, int, int)
  0.01   2167.56     0.17                             frame_dummy
  0.00   2167.56     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  printGrid(int (*) [25])
Call graph

granularity: each sample hit covers 2 byte(s) for 0.00% of 2085.44 seconds 

index % time    self  children    called     name
                                                 <spontaneous>
[1]    100.0    0.00 2085.30                 main [1]
               97.03 1988.27       1/1           SolveSudoku(int (*) [25]) [2]
                0.00    0.00       1/1           printGrid(int (*) [25]) [14]
-----------------------------------------------
                             876012757             SolveSudoku(int (*) [25]) [2]
               97.03 1988.27       1/1           main [1]
[2]    100.0   97.03 1988.27       1+876012757 SolveSudoku(int (*) [25]) [2]
              101.19 1361.55 425478951/425478951     isSafe(int (*) [25], int, int, int) [3]
              525.53    0.00 876012758/876012758     FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [25], int&, int&) [5]
                             876012757             SolveSudoku(int (*) [25]) [2]
-----------------------------------------------
              101.19 1361.55 425478951/425478951     SolveSudoku(int (*) [25]) [2]
[3]     70.1  101.19 1361.55 425478951         isSafe(int (*) [25], int, int, int) [3]
             1011.03    0.00 425478951/425478951     UsedInRow(int (*) [25], int, int) [4]
              259.56    0.00 590817023/590817023     UsedInCol(int (*) [25], int, int) [6]
               90.96    0.00 1355081265/1355081265     UsedInBox(int (*) [25], int, int, int) [7]
-----------------------------------------------
             1011.03    0.00 425478951/425478951     isSafe(int (*) [25], int, int, int) [3]
[4]     48.5 1011.03    0.00 425478951         UsedInRow(int (*) [25], int, int) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
              525.53    0.00 876012758/876012758     SolveSudoku(int (*) [25]) [2]
[5]     25.2  525.53    0.00 876012758         FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [25], int&, int&) [5]
-----------------------------------------------
              259.56    0.00 590817023/590817023     isSafe(int (*) [25], int, int, int) [3]
[6]     12.4  259.56    0.00 590817023         UsedInCol(int (*) [25], int, int) [6]
-----------------------------------------------
               90.96    0.00 1355081265/1355081265     isSafe(int (*) [25], int, int, int) [3]
[7]      4.4   90.96    0.00 1355081265         UsedInBox(int (*) [25], int, int, int) [7]
-----------------------------------------------
                                                 <spontaneous>
[8]      0.0    0.14    0.00                 frame_dummy [8]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00       1/1           main [1]
[14]     0.0    0.00    0.00       1         printGrid(int (*) [25]) [14]
-----------------------------------------------
Index by function name
  [2] SolveSudoku(int (*) [25]) [7] UsedInBox(int (*) [25], int, int, int) [14] printGrid(int (*) [25])
  [5] FindUnassignedLocation(int (*) [25], int&, int&) [6] UsedInCol(int (*) [25], int, int) [8] frame_dummy
  [3] isSafe(int (*) [25], int, int, int) [4] UsedInRow(int (*) [25], int, int)

Assignment 1: EasyBMP

EasyBMP Bitmap image library (Sample Program: Image to black and white renderer)

Library: http://easybmp.sourceforge.net/

Sample code:
/**/
#include "EasyBMP.h"

using namespace std;
int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {
        // Create a new Bitmap image with EasyBMP
        BMP Background;
        Background.ReadFromFile(argv[1]);
        BMP Output;
        int picWidth = Background.TellWidth();
        int picHeight = Background.TellHeight();
        Output.SetSize(Background.TellWidth(), Background.TellHeight());
        Output.SetBitDepth(1);
        for (int i = 1; i < picWidth - 1; ++i) {
                for (int j = 1; j < picHeight - 1; ++j) {
                        int col = (Background(i, j)->Blue + Background(i, j)->Green + 10 * Background(i, j)->Red) / 12;
                        if (col > 127) {
                                Output(i, j)->Red = 255;
                                Output(i, j)->Blue = 255;
                                Output(i, j)->Green = 255;
                        }
                        else {
                               Output(i, j)->Red = 0;
                               Output(i, j)->Blue = 0;
                               Output(i, j)->Green = 0;
                        }
                }
        }
        Output.WriteToFile(argv[2]);
        return 0;
}
/**/

The program was compiled using the following commands:

g++ -c -pg -g BW.cpp EasyBMP.cpp
g++ -pg BW.o EasyBMP.o -o BW
rm *.o

Attempted to run the program with a number of files (8K resolution):

Cabin small.jpg Cabin2 small.jpg

Flat profile (Cabin):
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
  %   cumulative   self              self     total
 time   seconds   seconds    calls   s/call   s/call  name
 31.38      1.74     1.74 33177600     0.00     0.00  BMP::FindClosestColor(RGBApixel&)
 23.52      3.04     1.30 198921624    0.00     0.00  BMP::operator()(int, int)
  9.95      3.59     0.55        2     0.28     0.28  BMP::SetSize(int, int)
  7.60      4.01     0.42 41663472     0.00     0.00  BMP::GetColor(int)
  6.87      4.39     0.38                             main
  5.43      4.69     0.30 74841076     0.00     0.00  IntPow(int, int)
  3.62      4.89     0.20 74841072     0.00     0.00  BMP::TellNumberOfColors()
  3.35      5.07     0.19     4320     0.00     0.00  BMP::Write1bitRow(unsigned char*, int, int)
  2.53      5.21     0.14 124990416    0.00     0.00  IntSquare(int)
  2.17      5.33     0.12     4320     0.00     0.00  BMP::Read24bitRow(unsigned char*, int, int)
  1.63      5.42     0.09        2     0.05     0.05  BMP::~BMP()
  0.90      5.47     0.05                             GetEasyBMPwarningState()
  0.72      5.51     0.04        1     0.04     0.04  _GLOBAL__sub_I_EasyBMPwarnings
  0.18      5.52     0.01        2     0.01     0.01  BMP::TellWidth()
  0.18      5.53     0.01        1     0.01     2.99  BMP::WriteToFile(char const*)
  0.00      5.53     0.00       16     0.00     0.00  SafeFread(char*, int, int, _IO_FILE*)
  0.00      5.53     0.00        6     0.00     0.00  IsBigEndian()
  0.00      5.53     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  EasyBMPcheckDataSize()
  0.00      5.53     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMP::TellHeight()
  0.00      5.53     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMP::SetBitDepth(int)
  0.00      5.53     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMP::BMP()
  0.00      5.53     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMFH::BMFH()
  0.00      5.53     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMIH::BMIH()
  0.00      5.53     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  _GLOBAL__sub_I_main
  0.00      5.53     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  __static_initialization_and_destruction_0(int, int)
  0.00      5.53     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  __static_initialization_and_destruction_0(int, int)
  0.00      5.53     0.00        1     0.00     0.40  BMP::ReadFromFile(char const*)
  0.00      5.53     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  BMP::CreateStandardColorTable()
Flat profile (Lake):
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
  %   cumulative   self              self     total
 time   seconds   seconds    calls   s/call   s/call  name
 30.60      1.71     1.71 33177600     0.00     0.00  BMP::FindClosestColor(RGBApixel&)
 21.12      2.89     1.18 198921624    0.00     0.00  BMP::operator()(int, int)
 10.20      3.46     0.57        2     0.29     0.29  BMP::SetSize(int, int)
  8.59      3.94     0.48                             main
  6.26      4.29     0.35 76982189     0.00     0.00  IntPow(int, int)
  6.08      4.63     0.34 43804585     0.00     0.00  BMP::GetColor(int)
  5.55      4.94     0.31 76982185     0.00     0.00  BMP::TellNumberOfColors()
  3.76      5.15     0.21     4320     0.00     0.00  BMP::Write1bitRow(unsigned char*, int, int)
  3.76      5.36     0.21 131413755    0.00     0.00  IntSquare(int)
  2.15      5.48     0.12     4320     0.00     0.00  BMP::Read24bitRow(unsigned char*, int, int)
  1.07      5.54     0.06        2     0.03     0.03  BMP::~BMP()
  0.54      5.57     0.03                             GetEasyBMPwarningState()
  0.36      5.59     0.02        1     0.02     0.02  _GLOBAL__sub_I_EasyBMPwarnings
  0.00      5.59     0.00       16     0.00     0.00  SafeFread(char*, int, int, _IO_FILE*)
  0.00      5.59     0.00        6     0.00     0.00  IsBigEndian()
  0.00      5.59     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  EasyBMPcheckDataSize()
  0.00      5.59     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMP::TellHeight()
  0.00      5.59     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMP::SetBitDepth(int)
  0.00      5.59     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMP::TellWidth()
  0.00      5.59     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMP::BMP()
  0.00      5.59     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMFH::BMFH()
  0.00      5.59     0.00        2     0.00     0.00  BMIH::BMIH()
  0.00      5.59     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  _GLOBAL__sub_I_main
  0.00      5.59     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  __static_initialization_and_destruction_0(int, int)
  0.00      5.59     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  __static_initialization_and_destruction_0(int, int)
  0.00      5.59     0.00        1     0.00     3.13  BMP::WriteToFile(char const*)
  0.00      5.59     0.00        1     0.00     0.41  BMP::ReadFromFile(char const*)
  0.00      5.59     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  BMP::CreateStandardColorTable()

Assignment 1: Julia Sets

This portion of the assignment focuses on Julia sets with the quadratic formula:

 fc(z) = z^2 + c;
 Where c and z are complex numbers

Psuedo code

 for(Pixel pix in image){
     pix.color = colorFunction(escapeValue(pix.loc, julia));
 }
 escapeValue(Complex loc, Complex julia){
     int cycles = 0;
     while(|loc| <=2 && ++cycles < MAXCYCLES){
        loc = loc * loc + julia;
     }
     return cycles;
 }
Julia.cpp
 /**
  * Julia.cpp
  * Vincent Terpstra
  * Feb 18 / 2019
  * Functions to display a Julia set
  */
 #include <iostream>
 #include <math.h>
 #include "Bitmap.h"
 #define MAXCYCLES 1000
 #define ITER 1
 #define PI 3.14159
 void calcJulia(int* array, int width, int height, float jR, float jI);
 void createBMP(int* array, int width, int height);
 int main(int size, const char ** args) {
     int height = (size > 1) ? atoi(args[1]) : 1000;
     int width = height / 2 * 3;
     int * array = new int[height * width];
     //Initial Julia Point value
       float jI = -0.4f;
       float jR =  0.6f;
     //for rotating the Julia point around the origin
       float angle = 2.0f / ITER * PI;
       float cosA = cos(angle);
       float sinA = sin(angle);
     for(int i = 0; i < ITER; i++){
         calcJulia(array, width, height, jI, jR);
         createBMP(array, width, height);
 
         //rotate the Julia point
         float tmp = jI;
         jI = cosA * jI - sinA * jR;
         jR = cosA * jR + sinA * tmp;
     }
 
     delete[] array;
     return 0;
 }
 /**
  * calcDepth
  *      finds the escape value of the Julia set
  *      inputs sR, sI: starting position on the map
  *          jR, jI: values of the julia set
  *      exits when |s| > 2 or reached MAXCYCLES
  *      return the escape value or MAXCYCLES
  */
 int calcDepth(float sR, float sI, const float jR, const float jI){
     int cycle = 0;
     while(sR * sR + sI * sI <= 4 && ++cycle < MAXCYCLES){
         // s(next) = s * s + j
         float tmp = sR;
         sR = sR * sR - sI * sI + jR;
         sI = 2 * tmp * sI + jI;
     }
     return cycle;
 }
 /**
  * calcJulia
  *  Function to calculate the values from (-1.5, 1.5),(-1, 1) in the Julia set
  *      saves the values onto the array
  */
 void calcJulia(int * array, int width, int height, const float jR, const float jI){
   float delta = 2 / (float)height;
   float x, y = -1;
   for(int i = 0; i < height; i++){
       x = -1.5f;
       for(int j = 0; j < width; j++){
           *array++ = calcDepth(x, y, jR, jI);
           x+=delta;
       }
       y += delta;
   }
 }
 struct Pix {
   float val;
   int r, g, b;
   Pix(float val, int r, int g, int b) : 
       val(val), r(r), g(g), b(b) {}
 };
 bool lerp(float clr, Pix& first, Pix& second, Bitmap & map);
 /**
  * createBMP
  *  maps the values in the array to a .bmp file
  *  linear interpolates between color values
  */
 void createBMP(int * array, int width, int height){
   static int idx = 0;
   char name[] = "julia000.bmp";
       name[5] = (idx / 100) + '0';
       name[6] = ((idx / 10) % 10) + '0';
       name[7] = (idx % 10) + '0';
   Bitmap map (name, width, height);
   //idx++;
   const int pix = width * height;
   struct Pix 
       clr0(0, 20, 20, 30),
       clr1(10, 20, 10, 100),
       clr2(180, 20, 170, 205), 
       clr3(MAXCYCLES, 0, 0, 0);
   const int * pMax = array + width * height;
   while(array < pMax){
       float clr = *array++;
       bool draw = 
           lerp(clr, clr0, clr1, map) || 
           lerp(clr, clr1, clr2, map) || 
           lerp(clr, clr2, clr3, map);
   }
 }
 /**
  * Function to linearly interpolate color values and draw to the Bitmap
  */
 bool lerp(float clr, Pix& first, Pix& second, Bitmap & map){
   if(clr <= second.val){
       float diff = (clr - first.val) / (second.val - first.val);
       map.addColor(
         first.b + diff * (second.b - first.b),
         first.g + diff * (second.g - first.g),
         first.r + diff * (second.r - first.r)
       );
       return true;
   }
   return false;
 }

To view the full c++ code github link

 This code is tested using the parameters 
 Range R(-1.5, 1.5) I(-1, 1)
 MAXCYCLES 1000
 Julia values = .72 * e^(i*θ): θ[0, 2π] : 100 intervals
Flat Profiles
Width: 750 Height: 500
Flat profile:
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
 %   cumulative   self              self     total
time   seconds   seconds    calls  ns/call  ns/call  name
96.00     20.87    20.87                             calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float)
 2.08     21.32     0.45 37500000    12.04    12.04  Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int)
 1.75     21.70     0.38 49447183     7.71    16.84  lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&)
 0.46     21.80     0.10                             createBMP(int*, int, int)
 0.00     21.80     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)
 0.00     21.80     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int)
 0.00     21.80     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int)
 0.00     21.80     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int)
 0.00     21.80     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  Bitmap::~Bitmap()
 0.00     21.80     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  _GLOBAL__sub_I_main
Width: 1500 Height: 1000
Flat profile:
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
 %   cumulative   self              self     total
time   seconds   seconds    calls  us/call  us/call  name
97.05     84.67    84.67                             calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float)
 1.66     86.12     1.45 150000000     0.01     0.01  Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int)
 1.12     87.09     0.97 197791886     0.00     0.01  lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&)
 0.37     87.41     0.32                             createBMP(int*, int, int)
 0.01     87.42     0.01      100    50.17    50.17  Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int)
 0.00     87.42     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)
 0.00     87.42     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int)
 0.00     87.42     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int)
 0.00     87.42     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  Bitmap::~Bitmap()
 0.00     87.42     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  _GLOBAL__sub_I_main
 Width: 2250 Height: 1500
 Flat profile:
 Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
 %   cumulative   self              self     total
time   seconds   seconds    calls  us/call  us/call  name
96.39    189.55   189.55                             calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float)
 1.89    193.27     3.72 337500000     0.01     0.01  Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int)
 1.49    196.20     2.93 445028641     0.01     0.01  lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&)
 0.45    197.09     0.89                             createBMP(int*, int, int)
 0.01    197.11     0.02      100   150.51   150.51  Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int)
 0.00    197.11     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)
 0.00    197.11     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int)
 0.00    197.11     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int)
 0.00    197.11     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  Bitmap::~Bitmap()
 0.00    197.11     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  _GLOBAL__sub_I_main
 Width: 3000 Height: 2000
 Flat profile:
 Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
 %   cumulative   self              self     total
time   seconds   seconds    calls  us/call  us/call  name
95.74    332.96   332.96                             calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float)
 2.79    342.68     9.72 600000000     0.02     0.02  Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int)
 1.28    347.14     4.46 791167185     0.01     0.02  lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&)
 0.44    348.66     1.52                             createBMP(int*, int, int)
 0.01    348.69     0.03      100   250.84   250.84  Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int)
 0.00    348.69     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)
 0.00    348.69     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int)
 0.00    348.69     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int)
 0.00    348.69     0.00      100     0.00     0.00  Bitmap::~Bitmap()
 0.00    348.69     0.00        1     0.00     0.00  _GLOBAL__sub_I_main
Call Graphs
Width: 750 Height: 500
Call graph
granularity: each sample hit covers 2 byte(s) for 0.05% of 21.80 seconds
index % time    self  children    called     name
                                                <spontaneous>
[1]     96.0   20.93    0.00                 calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float) [1]
-----------------------------------------------
                                                 <spontaneous>
[2]      4.0    0.14    0.73                 createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
                0.33    0.40 49447183/49447183     lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int) [15]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [16]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.33    0.40 49447183/49447183     createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[3]      3.4    0.33    0.40 49447183         lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
                0.40    0.00 37500000/37500000     Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.40    0.00 37500000/37500000     lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
[4]      1.8    0.40    0.00 37500000         Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [16]
[12]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)[12] 
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [13]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [14]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [12]
[13]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [13]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [12]
[14]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [14]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[15]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int) [15]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[16]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [16]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [12]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00       1/1           __libc_csu_init [25]
[17]     0.0    0.00    0.00       1         _GLOBAL__sub_I_main [17]
-----------------------------------------------
Index by function name
  [17] _GLOBAL__sub_I_main (julia.cpp) [3] lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [15] Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int)
  [12] generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [1] calcJulia(int*, int, int, float,  float) [16] Bitmap::~Bitmap()
  [13] createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [2] createBMP(int*, int, int)
  [14] createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [4] Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int)

Width: 1500 Height: 1000
Call graph
granularity: each sample hit covers 2 byte(s) for 0.01% of 87.23 seconds
index % time    self  children    called     name
                                                <spontaneous>
[1]     96.0   83.70    0.00                 calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float) [1]
-----------------------------------------------
                                                 <spontaneous>
[2]      4.0    0.37    3.16                 createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
                1.39    1.76 197791886/197791886     lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
                0.01    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int) [5]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [16]
-----------------------------------------------
                1.39    1.76 197791886/197791886     createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[3]      3.6    1.39    1.76 197791886         lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
                1.76    0.00 150000000/150000000     Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
                1.76    0.00 150000000/150000000     lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
[4]      2.0    1.76    0.00 150000000         Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.01    0.00     100/100         createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[5]      0.0    0.01    0.00     100         Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int) [5]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [16]
[13]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [13]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [14]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [15]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [13]
[14]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [14]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [13]
[15]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [15]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[16]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [16]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)  [13]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00       1/1           __libc_csu_init [25]
[17]     0.0    0.00    0.00       1         _GLOBAL__sub_I_main [17]
-----------------------------------------------
Index by function name
 [17] _GLOBAL__sub_I_main (julia.cpp) [3] lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [5] Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int)
 [13] generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [1] calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float) [16] Bitmap::~Bitmap()
 [14] createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [2] createBMP(int*, int, int)
 [15] createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [4] Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int)

Width: 2250 Height: 1500
Call graph
granularity: each sample hit covers 2 byte(s) for 0.01% of 196.08 seconds
index % time    self  children    called     name
                                                 <spontaneous>
[1]     96.0  188.22    0.00                 calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float) [1]
-----------------------------------------------
                                                 <spontaneous>
[2]      4.0    0.95    6.91                 createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
                2.78    4.12 445028641/445028641     lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
                0.00    0.01     100/100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [6]
                0.01    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int) [7]
-----------------------------------------------
                2.78    4.12 445028641/445028641     createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[3]      3.5    2.78    4.12 445028641         lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
                4.12    0.00 337500000/337500000     Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
                4.12    0.00 337500000/337500000     lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
[4]      2.1    4.12    0.00 337500000         Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.01    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [6]
[5]      0.0    0.01    0.00     100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [5]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [15]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [16]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.01     100/100         createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[6]      0.0    0.00    0.01     100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [6]
                0.01    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)  [5]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.01    0.00     100/100         createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[7]      0.0    0.01    0.00     100         Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int) [7]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)  [5]
[15]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [15]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)  [5]
[16]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [16]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00       1/1           __libc_csu_init [25]
[17]     0.0    0.00    0.00       1         _GLOBAL__sub_I_main [17]
-----------------------------------------------
Index by function name
 [17] _GLOBAL__sub_I_main (julia.cpp) [3] lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [7] Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int)
  [5] generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [1] calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float) [6] Bitmap::~Bitmap()
 [15] createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [2] createBMP(int*, int, int)
 [16] createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [4] Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int)
Width: 3000 Height: 2000
Call graph
granularity: each sample hit covers 2 byte(s) for 0.00% of 347.05 seconds
index % time    self  children    called     name
                                                 <spontaneous>
[1]     96.1  333.37    0.00                 calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float) [1]
-----------------------------------------------
                                                 <spontaneous>
[2]      3.9    1.21   12.47                 createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
                5.74    6.73 791167185/791167185     lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
                0.01    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int) [5]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [16]
-----------------------------------------------
                5.74    6.73 791167185/791167185     createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[3]      3.6    5.74    6.73 791167185         lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
                6.73    0.00 600000000/600000000     Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
                6.73    0.00 600000000/600000000     lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [3]
[4]      1.9    6.73    0.00 600000000         Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int) [4]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.01    0.00     100/100         createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[5]      0.0    0.01    0.00     100         Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int) [5]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [16]
[13]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)  [13]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [14]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [15]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)  [13]
[14]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [14]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)  [13]
[15]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [15]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00     100/100         createBMP(int*, int, int) [2]
[16]     0.0    0.00    0.00     100         Bitmap::~Bitmap() [16]
                0.00    0.00     100/100         generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*)  [13]
-----------------------------------------------
                0.00    0.00       1/1           __libc_csu_init [25]
[17]     0.0    0.00    0.00       1         _GLOBAL__sub_I_main [17]
-----------------------------------------------
Index by function name
 [17] _GLOBAL__sub_I_main (julia.cpp) [3] lerp(float, Pix&, Pix&, Bitmap&) [5] Bitmap::Bitmap(char const*, int, int)
 [13] generateBitmapImage(unsigned char*, int, int, char const*) [1] calcJulia(int*, int, int, float, float) [16] Bitmap::~Bitmap()
 [14] createBitmapFileHeader(int, int, int) [2] createBMP(int*, int, int)
 [15] createBitmapInfoHeader(int, int) [4] Bitmap::addColor(int, int, int)
Generated Image of Julia set at (-0.4, 0.6)

Julia.jpg

Assignment 2

Code for Solving a Sudoku using backtracking
#include <stdio.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <ctime>
#include <iomanip>
// CUDA header file
#include "cuda_runtime.h"
#include "device_launch_parameters.h"
// A Backtracking program  in C++ to solve Sudoku problem 
#include <stdio.h> 
// UNASSIGNED is used for empty cells in sudoku grid 
#define UNASSIGNED 0 
// N is used for the size of Sudoku grid. Size will be NxN 
#define BOXWIDTH 3
#define N 9
// This function finds an entry in grid that is still unassigned 
bool FindUnassignedLocation(int grid[N][N], int &row, int &col);
// Checks whether it will be legal to assign num to the given row, col 
__global__ void makeGuess(int* d_a, int guess, int row, int col) {
   __shared__ bool found;
   bool control = !(threadIdx.x || threadIdx.y);
   int tidx = 0;
   if (threadIdx.y == 2) { //BOXES
      tidx = (((row / BOXWIDTH) * BOXWIDTH) + threadIdx.x / BOXWIDTH) * N 
             + threadIdx.x % BOXWIDTH + (col / BOXWIDTH) * BOXWIDTH;
   } else if (threadIdx.y == 1) { //ROWS
      tidx = row * N + threadIdx.x;
   } else { //COLUMNS
      tidx = threadIdx.x * N + col;
   }
   if (control)
     found = true;
   __syncthreads();
   while (found) {
       __syncthreads();
       if (control)
           found = false;
       __syncthreads();
       if (d_a[tidx] == ++guess)
           found = true;
       __syncthreads();
   }
   if (control)
     d_a[row * N + col] = guess;
 }
/* Takes a partially filled-in grid and attempts to assign values to
  all unassigned locations in such a way to meet the requirements
  for Sudoku solution (non-duplication across rows, columns, and boxes) */
bool SolveSudoku(int grid[N][N], int* d_a, int row, int col)
{ 
   // If there is no unassigned location, we are done 
       if (!FindUnassignedLocation(grid, row, col))
           return true; // success! 
       dim3 block(N, 3);	
       int guess = 0;
       while (guess <= N) {
           makeGuess << <1, block >> > (d_a, guess, row, col);
           cudaMemcpy(&guess, d_a + row * N + col, sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost);
           if (guess <= N && SolveSudoku(grid, d_a, row, col + 1))
               return true;
       }
   //Erase the guess on the host
   int zero = UNASSIGNED;
   cudaMemcpy(d_a + row * N + col, &zero, sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyHostToDevice);
   return false; // this triggers backtracking
}
/* Searches the grid to find an entry that is still unassigned. If
   found, the reference parameters row, col will be set the location
   that is unassigned, and true is returned. If no unassigned entries
   remain, false is returned. */
bool FindUnassignedLocation(int grid[N][N], int &row, int &col)
{
   for (; row < N; ++row) {
       for (; col < N; ++col)
           if (grid[row][col] == UNASSIGNED)
                return true;
       col = 0;
   }
   return false;
}
/* A utility function to print grid  */
void printGrid(int grid[N][N])
{
   for (int row = 0; row < N; row++){
       for (int col = 0; col < N; col++)
           printf("%2d", grid[row][col]);
       printf("\n");
   }
}
/* Driver Program to test above functions */
int main()
{
   /* 0 means unassigned cells */
   int grid[N][N] = 
   {{3, 0, 6, 5, 0, 8, 4, 0, 0},
    {5, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0},
    {0, 8, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3, 1},
    {0, 0, 3, 0, 1, 0, 0, 8, 0},
    {9, 0, 0, 8, 6, 3, 0, 0, 5},
    {0, 5, 0, 0, 9, 0, 6, 0, 0},
    {1, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 5, 0},
    {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 7, 4},
    {0, 0, 5, 2, 0, 6, 3, 0, 0} };
   /**
   int grid[N][N] = 
   {{0,  8,   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  3,  0,  0,  0, 10,  9,  7, 11, 0},
    {0,  9,  15, 13,  0, 10,  0,  0,  2,  6,  8, 16,  0,  0,  0, 0},
    {0,  0,  16,  0, 15,  0,  8,  0,  9,  0,  0,  0,  6,  0,  2, 0},
    {1,  0,   2,  0,  9, 11,  4,  6, 15,  3,  5,  7,  0,  0, 12, 0},
   {16, 6,   4,  0,  5,  2,  0,  0,  1,  0,  0,  0, 11,  0,  0, 12},
    {5,  11,  0,  0,  0,  3,  0, 15,  0, 16,  0, 13,  0,  1,  0, 8},
    {0,  0,   3,  0,  0,  6, 11, 14,  0,  5,  7,  0,  0,  9,  0, 0},
    {0,  0,   0, 14,  8,  0, 10,  0,  0, 11, 12,  0,  0,  0,  0, 0},
    {0,  7,  13,  0,  0,  0,  0, 12,  0,  8,  9,  0,  0,  0,  3, 0},
    {0,  0,  11,  9,  0,  7,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0, 12,  0,  8, 16, 5},
    {0,  0,  10,  0, 11, 13,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  3, 12,  0,  6, 0},
    {0,  5,   0,  0, 10, 15,  0,  1,  7,  2,  0,  0, 14, 11,  0, 0},
    {0,  0,   5,  0,  0, 12, 14,  0,  0, 10,  0,  0, 15,  0,  0, 4},
    {9,  0,  14,  6,  0,  0,  1,  0, 16,  0,  2,  0,  3,  0, 13, 0},
    {8,  13,  0,  4,  0,  0,  0,  0, 12,  7,  3,  0,  0,  6,  0, 0},
    {0,  16, 12,  0,  0,  5,  0,  9,  0, 13, 14,  4,  1,  0,  0, 0} };
   /**/
   int* d_a;
   cudaMalloc((void**)&d_a, N*N * sizeof(int));
   cudaMemcpy(d_a, grid, N*N * sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyHostToDevice);
   SolveSudoku(grid, d_a, 0, 0);
   cudaMemcpy(grid, d_a, N*N * sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost);
   printGrid(grid);
   cudaFree(d_a);
   return 0;
}

This code is capable of solving the 9x9 matrix supplied HOWEVER with the backtracking algorithm substituting values and the communications delay between the GPU and CPU, This code is unable to solve the 16x16 in any reasonable amount of time (I stopped it at 10+ minutes). If you consider the 130+ empty spaces in the grid I estimate over 130^2 calls to cudaMemcpy either way...

Faster than Yours...
/**
* Vincent Terpstra
* Sudoku.cu
* March 18 / 2019
* An Optimistic approach to solving a Sudoku on a CUDA enabled GPU
*    Assumes that the puzzle is deterministic(single solvable solution)
*        AND each next step can be found with the kernel
* KERNEL: educatedGuess
*   searches each square in a box for
*    squares that have only a single appropiate value
*    OR values that (in the box) can only fit in one square
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <ctime>
#include <iomanip>
// CUDA header file
#include "cuda_runtime.h"
#include <device_launch_parameters.h>
#ifndef __CUDACC__
#define __CUDACC__
#endif
#include <device_functions.h>
#include <stdio.h> 
// UNASSIGNED is used for empty cells in sudoku grid 
#define UNASSIGNED 0 
// N is used for the size of Sudoku grid. Size will be NxN 
#define BOXWIDTH 5
#define N (BOXWIDTH * BOXWIDTH)
/*
 * kernel to solve a sudoku
 * Input: sudoku puzzle partitioned into boxes
 *	* d_a = the sudoku puzzle
 *	figures out what values can fit in each square
 *  figures out how many spots each value can go
 *  assigns the appropiate values,
 *	saves to addedIdx to show that there is a change
 */
__global__ void educatedGuess(int * d_a, int * addedIdx) {
       int idx   = threadIdx.x + BOXWIDTH * threadIdx.y;
       int gridX = threadIdx.x + BOXWIDTH * blockIdx.x;
       int gridY = threadIdx.y + BOXWIDTH * blockIdx.y;
       int gridIdx = gridX + N * gridY;
   __shared__ bool hasValue[N]; //If the value occurs in the box
   __shared__ int  inBox[N];	 //Number of places each integer can go in the box
       hasValue[idx] = false;
       inBox[idx] = 0;
   __syncthreads();
       int at = d_a[gridIdx];
       if (at != 0)
           hasValue[at - 1] = true;
   __syncthreads();
       if (at != 0)
           return;
   //For remembering which values were seen in the rows and columns
       bool foundVal[N];
       for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
           foundVal[i] = hasValue[i];
       
       for (int check = 0; check < N; check++) {
           foundVal[d_a[N * check + gridX] - 1] = true;
           foundVal[d_a[N * gridY + check] - 1] = true;
       }
       int fndVals = 0;
       for( int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
       if (!foundVal[i]) {
           fndVals++;
           at = i + 1;
       }
       if (fndVals == 1) {
       //Only one possible value for this index
           d_a[gridIdx]  = at;        //assign value
           addedIdx[0]   = gridIdx;   //to tell host that the table has changed
           inBox[at - 1] = 4; //Prevent one index per value
       }
       __syncthreads();
       //Calculate the number of places each integer can go in the box
       for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i) {
           int num = (idx + i) % N; //keep each thread on a seperate idx
           if (!foundVal[num])
               inBox[num]++;
           __syncthreads();
       }
       for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i) {
       //if there is only one possible index for that value assign the value
       if (inBox[i] == 1 && !foundVal[i]) {
           d_a[gridIdx] = i + 1;    //assign value
           addedIdx[0] = gridIdx;   //to tell host that the table has changed
       }
   }
}
/* Solves the Sudoku, with best values */
void SolveSudoku(int grid[N][N], int* d_a, int* d_results)
{
   dim3 block(BOXWIDTH, BOXWIDTH);
   int lastIdx(-1), nextIdx(-1);
   do {
       lastIdx = nextIdx;
       educatedGuess << <block, block >> > (d_a, d_results);
       cudaMemcpy(&nextIdx, d_results, sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost);
   } while (lastIdx != nextIdx);
}
/* A utility function to print grid  */
void printGrid(int grid[N][N])
{ for (int row = 0; row < N; row++) {
       for (int col = 0; col < N; col++)
           printf("%3d", grid[row][col]);
      printf("\n");
   }
}
/* Driver Program to test above functions */
int main()
{ /* 0 means unassigned cells *
   int grid[N][N] =
   { {3, 0, 6, 5, 0, 8, 4, 0, 0},
   {5, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0},
   {0, 8, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 3, 1},
   {0, 0, 3, 0, 1, 0, 0, 8, 0},
   {9, 0, 0, 8, 6, 3, 0, 0, 5},
   {0, 5, 0, 0, 9, 0, 6, 0, 0},
   {1, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 5, 0},
   {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 7, 4},
   {0, 0, 5, 2, 0, 6, 3, 0, 0} };
   /**
   int grid[N][N] =
   {{0,  8,   0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  3,  0,  0,  0, 10,  9,  7, 11, 0},
   {0,  9,  15, 13,  0, 10,  0,  0,  2,  6,  8, 16,  0,  0,  0, 0},
   {0,  0,  16,  0, 15,  0,  8,  0,  9,  0,  0,  0,  6,  0,  2, 0},
   {1,  0,   2,  0,  9, 11,  4,  6, 15,  3,  5,  7,  0,  0, 12, 0},
   {16, 6,   4,  0,  5,  2,  0,  0,  1,  0,  0,  0, 11,  0,  0, 12},
   {5,  11,  0,  0,  0,  3,  0, 15,  0, 16,  0, 13,  0,  1,  0, 8},
   {0,  0,   3,  0,  0,  6, 11, 14,  0,  5,  7,  0,  0,  9,  0, 0},
   {0,  0,   0, 14,  8,  0, 10,  0,  0, 11, 12,  0,  0,  0,  0, 0},
   {0,  7,  13,  0,  0,  0,  0, 12,  0,  8,  9,  0,  0,  0,  3, 0},
   {0,  0,  11,  9,  0,  7,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0, 12,  0,  8, 16, 5},
   {0,  0,  10,  0, 11, 13,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  3, 12,  0,  6, 0},
   {0,  5,   0,  0, 10, 15,  0,  1,  7,  2,  0,  0, 14, 11,  0, 0},
   {0,  0,   5,  0,  0, 12, 14,  0,  0, 10,  0,  0, 15,  0,  0, 4},
   {9,  0,  14,  6,  0,  0,  1,  0, 16,  0,  2,  0,  3,  0, 13, 0},
   {8,  13,  0,  4,  0,  0,  0,  0, 12,  7,  3,  0,  0,  6,  0, 0},
   {0,  16, 12,  0,  0,  5,  0,  9,  0, 13, 14,  4,  1,  0,  0, 0} };
   /**/
   int grid[N][N] = 
   { {1,  0,   4,  0, 25,  0, 19,  0,  0,  10,  21, 8,  0,  14, 0,  6,  12,   9,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  5},{5,  0,  19, 23, 24,  0, 22,  12,  0,  0,  16, 6,  0,  20,  0,  18,  0,   25,  14,  13,  10, 11,  0,  1,  15},{0,  0,   0,  0,  0,  0,  21,  5,  0,  20,  11,  10,  0,  1,  0,  4,  8,   24,  23,  15,  18,  0,  16,  22,  19},

{0, 7, 21, 8, 18, 0, 0, 0, 11, 0, 5, 0, 0, 24, 0, 0, 0, 17, 22, 1, 9, 6, 25, 0, 0}, {0, 13, 15, 0, 22, 14, 0, 18, 0, 16, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 19, 0, 0, 0, 24, 20, 21, 17}, {12, 0, 11, 0, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 15, 0, 0, 0, 0, 21, 25, 19, 0, 4, 0, 22, 14, 0, 20, 0}, {8, 0, 0, 21, 0, 16, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 17, 23, 18, 22, 0, 0, 0, 24, 6}, {4, 0, 14, 18, 7, 9, 0, 22, 21, 19, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 5, 0, 0, 0, 6, 16, 15, 0, 11, 12}, {22, 0, 24, 0, 23, 0, 0, 11, 0, 7, 0, 0, 4, 0, 14, 0, 2, 12, 0, 8, 5, 19, 0, 25, 9}, {20, 0, 0, 0, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 17, 9, 0, 12, 18, 0, 1, 0, 0, 7, 24, 0, 0, 0, 13, 4}, {13, 0, 0, 5, 0, 2, 23, 14, 4, 18, 22, 0, 17, 0, 0, 20, 0, 1, 9, 21, 12, 0, 0, 8, 11}, {14, 23, 0, 24, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 20, 25, 0, 3, 4, 13, 0, 11, 21, 9, 5, 18, 22}, {7, 0, 0, 11, 17, 20, 24, 0, 0, 0, 3, 4, 1, 12, 0, 0, 6, 14, 0, 5, 25, 13, 0, 0, 0}, {0, 0, 16, 9, 0, 17, 11, 7, 10, 25, 0, 0, 0, 13, 6, 0, 0, 18, 0, 0, 19, 4, 0, 0, 20}, {6, 15, 0, 19, 4, 13, 0, 0, 5, 0, 18, 11, 0, 0, 9, 8, 22, 16, 25, 10, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, {0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 10, 19, 3, 0, 1, 0, 22, 9, 4, 11, 15, 0, 20, 0, 0, 8, 23, 0, 25}, {0, 24, 8, 13, 1, 0, 0, 4, 20, 0, 17, 14, 0, 0, 18, 0, 16, 22, 5, 0, 11, 0, 10, 0, 0}, {23, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 18, 0, 6, 0, 16, 0, 0, 17, 1, 0, 13, 0, 0, 3, 19, 12, 0}, {25, 5, 0, 14, 11, 0, 17, 0, 8, 24, 13, 0, 19, 23, 15, 9, 0, 0, 12, 0, 20, 0, 22, 0, 7}, {0, 0, 17, 4, 0, 22, 15, 0, 23, 11, 12, 25, 0, 0, 0, 0, 18, 8, 0, 7, 0, 0, 14, 0, 13}, {19, 6, 23, 22, 8, 0, 0, 1, 25, 4, 14, 2, 0, 3, 7, 13, 10, 11, 16, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, {0, 4, 0, 17, 0, 3, 0, 24, 0, 8, 20, 23, 11, 10, 25, 22, 0, 0, 0, 12, 13, 2, 18, 6, 0}, {0, 0, 7, 16, 0, 0, 6, 17, 2, 21, 0, 18, 0, 0, 0, 19, 0, 0, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0}, {18, 9, 25, 1, 2, 11, 0, 0, 13, 22, 4, 0, 21, 0, 5, 0, 23, 7, 0, 0, 15, 0, 3, 0, 8}, {0, 21, 10, 0, 0, 12, 0, 20, 16, 0, 19, 0, 0, 0, 0, 15, 14, 4, 2, 18, 23, 25, 11, 7, 0} }; /**/

   int* d_a;      //Table
   int* d_result; //Table change indicator
   cudaMalloc((void**)&d_a, N*N * sizeof(int));
   cudaMalloc((void**)&d_result, sizeof(int));
   //Copy Sudoku over
   cudaMemcpy(d_a, grid, N*N * sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyHostToDevice);
   SolveSudoku(grid, d_a, d_result);
   //Copy Sudoku back
   cudaMemcpy(grid, d_a, N*N * sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost);
   printGrid(grid);
   cudaFree(d_a);
   cudaFree(d_result);
   return 0;

}

Single Pass Sudoku Solver

__global__ void superSolve(int * d_a) {
 
    //Used to remember which row | col | box ( section ) have which values
    __shared__ bool rowHas[N][N];
    __shared__ bool colHas[N][N];
    __shared__ bool boxHas[N][N];
 
    //Used to ensure that the table has changed
    __shared__ int added, past;
 
    //Number of spaces which can place the number in each section
    __shared__ int rowCount[N][N];
    __shared__ int colCount[N][N];
    __shared__ int boxCount[N][N];
 
    //Where the square is located in the Sudoku
    int row = threadIdx.x;
    int col = threadIdx.y;
    int box = row / BOXWIDTH + (col / BOXWIDTH) * BOXWIDTH;
 
    //Unique identifier for each square in row, col, box
    //Corresponds to the generic Sudoku Solve
    //Using a Sudoku to solve a Sudoku !!!
    int offset = col + (row % BOXWIDTH) * BOXWIDTH + (box % BOXWIDTH);
 
    //Square's location in the Sudoku
    int gridIdx = col * N + row;
 
    int at = d_a[gridIdx];
 
    if (!gridIdx) { //Thread at 0,0 sets values
         added = -1;
         past = -2;
    }
 
    rowHas[col][row] = false;
    colHas[col][row] = false;
    boxHas[col][row] = false;
    __syncthreads();
 
    if (at != UNASSIGNED) {
         rowHas[row][at - 1] = true;
         colHas[col][at - 1] = true;
         boxHas[box][at - 1] = true;
    }
 
    //Previous loop has not changed any values
    while (added != past) {
         //RESET counters
         rowCount[col][row] = 0;
         colCount[col][row] = 0;
         boxCount[col][row] = 0;
         __syncthreads();
 
         if (!gridIdx) //forget previous change
              past = added;
         int count = 0;  //number of values which can fit in this square
         int guess = at; //last value found which can fit in this square
         for (int idx = 0; idx < N; ++idx) {
              //Ensures that every square in each section is working on a different number in the section
              int num = (idx + offset) % N;
              if (at == UNASSIGNED && !(rowHas[row][num] || colHas[col][num] || boxHas[box][num])) {
                   count++;
                   guess = num + 1;
                   rowCount[row][num] ++;
                   colCount[col][num] ++;
                   boxCount[box][num] ++;
              }
              __syncthreads();
         }
 
         //Only ONE value can fit in this spot
         if (count == 1) {
              at = guess--;
              d_a[gridIdx] = at;
              rowHas[row][guess] = true;
              colHas[col][guess] = true;
              boxHas[box][guess] = true;
              added = gridIdx;
         }
         __syncthreads();
 
         if (at == UNASSIGNED) {
              //Find values which can go in only one spot in the section
              for (int idx = 0; idx < N; ++idx) {
                   if (!(rowHas[row][idx] || colHas[col][idx] || boxHas[box][idx]) &&
                        (boxCount[box][idx] == 1 || rowCount[row][idx] == 1 || colCount[col][idx] == 1)) {
                     //In this section this value can only appear in this square
                     at = idx + 1;
                     d_a[gridIdx] = at;
                     rowHas[row][idx] = true;
                     colHas[col][idx] = true;
                     boxHas[box][idx] = true;
                     added = gridIdx;
                   }
              }
         }
         __syncthreads();
    }
}

Assignment 3

Optimized kernel : Single Pass
__global__ void superSolve(int * d_a) {

    //Used to remember which row | col | box ( section ) have which values
    __shared__ bool rowHas[N][N];
    __shared__ bool colHas[N][N];
    __shared__ bool boxHas[N][N];
    
    //Used to ensure that the table has changed
    __shared__ bool changed;
    
    //Number of spaces which can place the number in each section
    __shared__ int rowCount[N][N];
    __shared__ int colCount[N][N];
    __shared__ int boxCount[N][N];
    
    //Where the square is located in the Sudoku
    int row = threadIdx.x;
    int col = threadIdx.y;
    int box = row / BOXWIDTH + (col / BOXWIDTH) * BOXWIDTH;
    
    //Unique identifier for each square in row, col, box
    //Corresponds to the generic Sudoku Solve
    //Using a Sudoku to solve a Sudoku !!!
    int offset = col + (row % BOXWIDTH) * BOXWIDTH + (box % BOXWIDTH);
    
    //Square's location in the Sudoku
    int gridIdx = col * N + row;
    
    int at = d_a[gridIdx];
    
    bool notSeen[N];
    for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
         notSeen[i] = true;
    
    rowHas[col][row] = false;
    colHas[col][row] = false;
    boxHas[col][row] = false;
    __syncthreads();
    if (at != UNASSIGNED) {
         rowHas[row][at - 1] = true;
         colHas[col][at - 1] = true;
         boxHas[box][at - 1] = true;
    }
    //Previous loop has not changed any values
    do {
    //RESET counters
    rowCount[col][row] = 0;
    colCount[col][row] = 0;
    boxCount[col][row] = 0;
    __syncthreads();
    
    if (gridIdx == 0) //forget previous change
         changed = false;
    int count = 0;  //number of values which can fit in this square
    int guess = 0; //last value found which can fit in this square
    for (int idx = 0; idx < N; ++idx) {
    //Ensures that every square in each section is working on a different number in the section
         int num = (idx + offset) % N;
         if (at == UNASSIGNED && notSeen[num]){
              if (rowHas[row][num] || boxHas[box][num] || colHas[col][num]){
                   notSeen[num] = false;
              } else {
                   ++count;
                   guess = num;
                   rowCount[row][num] ++;
                   colCount[col][num] ++;
                   boxCount[box][num] ++;
              }
         }
         __syncthreads();
    }
    
    //Find values which can go in only one spot in the section
    for (int idx = 0; idx < N && count > 1; ++idx) {
    if (notSeen[idx] &&
         ( rowCount[row][idx] == 1 || boxCount[box][idx] == 1 || colCount[col][idx] == 1)) {
         //In this section this value can only appear in this square
              guess = idx;
              count = 1;
         }
    }
    	
    if (count == 1) {
         at = guess + 1;
         rowHas[row][guess] = true;
         colHas[col][guess] = true;
         boxHas[box][guess] = true;
    changed = true;
    }
    __syncthreads();
    } while (changed );
    d_a[gridIdx] = at;
}
Reduced superSolve runtime from 5.1 to 1.2ms
Changes:
Used faster memory
  -each thread now remembers which values it has seen in a boolean array
Reduced Thread Divergence/CGMA
  - values are only assigned to the grid after the kernel 'solves' the sudoku removing wait times for assigning to global memory
  - at value in kernel and rowHas, colHas, boxHas, updated in a single place, reducing wait time for updating
Coalesced Memory
  - change modifying _Has and _Count arrays from col->row to row->col as row(threadIdx.x) is our fastest moving dimension
  - query in order of row->box->col for the same reason
Clarified Code
  - use gridIdx == 0 rather then !gridIdx
  - use a do-while loop rather then a while loop
Full code
#include <stdio.h>
// CUDA header file
#include "cuda_runtime.h"
#include <device_launch_parameters.h>
#ifndef __CUDACC__
#define __CUDACC__
#endif
// UNASSIGNED is used for empty cells in Sudoku grid 
#define UNASSIGNED 0

// BOX_W is used for the length of one of the square sub-regions of the Sudoku grid.
// Overall length will be N * N.
#define BOX_W 5
#define N (BOX_W * BOX_W)


__global__ void solve(int* d_a) {
  // Used to remember which row | col | box ( section ) have which values
  __shared__ bool rowHas[N][N];
  __shared__ bool colHas[N][N];
  __shared__ bool boxHas[N][N];
  // Used to ensure that the table has changed
  __shared__ bool changed;
  // Number of spaces which can place the number in each section
  __shared__ int rowCount[N][N];
  __shared__ int colCount[N][N];
  __shared__ int boxCount[N][N];
  // Where the square is located in the Sudoku
  int row = threadIdx.x;
  int col = threadIdx.y;
  int box = row / BOX_W + (col / BOX_W) * BOX_W;
  // Unique identifier for each square in row, col, box
  // Corresponds to the generic Sudoku Solve
  // Using a Sudoku to solve a Sudoku !!!
  int offset = col + (row % BOX_W) * BOX_W + (box % BOX_W);
  // Square's location in the Sudoku
  int gridIdx = col * N + row;
  int at = d_a[gridIdx];
  bool notSeen[N];
  for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
    notSeen[i] = true;
  rowHas[col][row] = false;
  colHas[col][row] = false;
  boxHas[col][row] = false;
  __syncthreads();
  if (at != UNASSIGNED) {
    rowHas[row][at - 1] = true;
    colHas[col][at - 1] = true;
    boxHas[box][at - 1] = true;
  }
  // Previous loop has not changed any values
  do {
    // RESET counters
    rowCount[col][row] = 0;
    colCount[col][row] = 0;
    boxCount[col][row] = 0;
    __syncthreads();
    if (gridIdx == 0) // forget previous change
      changed = false;
    int count = 0;  // number of values which can fit in this square
    int guess = 0; // last value found which can fit in this square
    for (int idx = 0; idx < N; ++idx) {
      // Ensures that every square in each section is working on a different number in the section
      int num = (idx + offset) % N;
      if (at == UNASSIGNED && notSeen[num]) {
        if (rowHas[row][num] || boxHas[box][num] || colHas[col][num])
          notSeen[num] = false;
        else {
          ++count;
          guess = num;
          rowCount[row][num]++;
          colCount[col][num]++;
          boxCount[box][num]++;
        }
      }
      __syncthreads();
    }
    // Find values which can go in only one spot in the section
    for (int idx = 0; idx < N && count > 1; ++idx) {
      if (notSeen[idx] &&
        (rowCount[row][idx] == 1 || boxCount[box][idx] == 1 || colCount[col][idx] == 1)) {
        // In this section this value can only appear in this square
        guess = idx;
        count = 1;
      }
    }
    if (count == 1) {
      at = guess + 1;
      rowHas[row][guess] = true;
      colHas[col][guess] = true;
      boxHas[box][guess] = true;
      changed = true;
    }
    __syncthreads();
  } while (changed);
  d_a[gridIdx] = at;
}

bool validate(int result[N][N]) {
  for (int row = 0; row < N; row++)
    for (int col = 0; col < N; col++)
      if (result[row][col] == 0)
        return false;
  return true;
}

void print(int result[N][N]) {
  for (int row = 0; row < N; row++) {
    for (int col = 0; col < N; col++)
      printf("%3d", result[row][col]);
    printf("\n");
  }
}

// Driver program to test main program functions
int main() {
  int h_a[N][N] = {
    {  1,  0,  4,  0, 25,  0, 19,  0,  0, 10, 21,  8,  0, 14,  0,  6, 12,  9,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  5},
    {  5,  0, 19, 23, 24,  0, 22, 12,  0,  0, 16,  6,  0, 20,  0, 18,  0, 25, 14, 13, 10, 11,  0,  1, 15},
    {  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0, 21,  5,  0, 20, 11, 10,  0,  1,  0,  4,  8, 24, 23, 15, 18,  0, 16, 22, 19},
    {  0,  7, 21,  8, 18,  0,  0,  0, 11,  0,  5,  0,  0, 24,  0,  0,  0, 17, 22,  1,  9,  6, 25,  0,  0},
    {  0, 13, 15,  0, 22, 14,  0, 18,  0, 16,  0,  0,  0,  4,  0,  0,  0, 19,  0,  0,  0, 24, 20, 21, 17},
    { 12,  0, 11,  0,  6,  0,  0,  0,  0, 15,  0,  0,  0,  0, 21, 25, 19,  0,  4,  0, 22, 14,  0, 20,  0},
    {  8,  0,  0, 21,  0, 16,  0,  0,  0,  2,  0,  3,  0,  0,  0,  0, 17, 23, 18, 22,  0,  0,  0, 24,  6},
    {  4,  0, 14, 18,  7,  9,  0, 22, 21, 19,  0,  0,  0,  2,  0,  5,  0,  0,  0,  6, 16, 15,  0, 11, 12},
    { 22,  0, 24,  0, 23,  0,  0, 11,  0,  7,  0,  0,  4,  0, 14,  0,  2, 12,  0,  8,  5, 19,  0, 25,  9},
    { 20,  0,  0,  0,  5,  0,  0,  0,  0, 17,  9,  0, 12, 18,  0,  1,  0,  0,  7, 24,  0,  0,  0, 13,  4},
    { 13,  0,  0,  5,  0,  2, 23, 14,  4, 18, 22,  0, 17,  0,  0, 20,  0,  1,  9, 21, 12,  0,  0,  8, 11},
    { 14, 23,  0, 24,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0, 20, 25,  0,  3,  4, 13,  0, 11, 21,  9,  5, 18, 22},
    {  7,  0,  0, 11, 17, 20, 24,  0,  0,  0,  3,  4,  1, 12,  0,  0,  6, 14,  0,  5, 25, 13,  0,  0,  0},
    {  0,  0, 16,  9,  0, 17, 11,  7, 10, 25,  0,  0,  0, 13,  6,  0,  0, 18,  0,  0, 19,  4,  0,  0, 20},
    {  6, 15,  0, 19,  4, 13,  0,  0,  5,  0, 18, 11,  0,  0,  9,  8, 22, 16, 25, 10,  7,  0,  0,  0,  0},
    {  0,  0,  0,  2,  0,  0, 10, 19,  3,  0,  1,  0, 22,  9,  4, 11, 15,  0, 20,  0,  0,  8, 23,  0, 25},
    {  0, 24,  8, 13,  1,  0,  0,  4, 20,  0, 17, 14,  0,  0, 18,  0, 16, 22,  5,  0, 11,  0, 10,  0,  0},
    { 23, 10,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0, 18,  0,  6,  0, 16,  0,  0, 17,  1,  0, 13,  0,  0,  3, 19, 12,  0},
    { 25,  5,  0, 14, 11,  0, 17,  0,  8, 24, 13,  0, 19, 23, 15,  9,  0,  0, 12,  0, 20,  0, 22,  0,  7},
    {  0,  0, 17,  4,  0, 22, 15,  0, 23, 11, 12, 25,  0,  0,  0,  0, 18,  8,  0,  7,  0,  0, 14,  0, 13},
    { 19,  6, 23, 22,  8,  0,  0,  1, 25,  4, 14,  2,  0,  3,  7, 13, 10, 11, 16,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0,  0},
    {  0,  4,  0, 17,  0,  3,  0, 24,  0,  8, 20, 23, 11, 10, 25, 22,  0,  0,  0, 12, 13,  2, 18,  6,  0},
    {  0,  0,  7, 16,  0,  0,  6, 17,  2, 21,  0, 18,  0,  0,  0, 19,  0,  0,  8,  0,  0,  0,  0,  4,  0},
    { 18,  9, 25,  1,  2, 11,  0,  0, 13, 22,  4,  0, 21,  0,  5,  0, 23,  7,  0,  0, 15,  0,  3,  0,  8},
    {  0, 21, 10,  0,  0, 12,  0, 20, 16,  0, 19,  0,  0,  0,  0, 15, 14,  4,  2, 18, 23, 25, 11,  7,  0}
  };
  int* d_a;      //Table
  int* d_result; //Table change indicator
  cudaMalloc((void**)&d_a, N * N * sizeof(int));
  cudaMalloc((void**)&d_result, sizeof(int));
  // Copy Sudoku to device
  cudaMemcpy(d_a, h_a, N * N * sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyHostToDevice);
  dim3 dBlock(N, N);
  solve<<<1, dBlock>>>(d_a);
  // Copy Sudoku back to host
  cudaMemcpy(h_a, d_a, N * N * sizeof(int), cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost);
  // Check if solved
  if (validate(h_a))
    print(h_a);
  else
    printf("No solution could be found.");
  cudaFree(d_a);
  cudaFree(d_result);
  return 0;
}