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Tutorial11: Sed & Awk Utilities

11 bytes added, 17 March
INVESTIGATION 2: USING THE AWK UTILITY
# Issue the '''cat''' command to quickly view the contents of the '''cars.txt''' file.<br><br>The "'''print'''" action (command) is the <u>default</u> action of awk to print<br>all selected lines that match a '''pattern'''.<br><br>This '''action''' (contained in braces) can provide more options<br>such as printing '''specific fields''' of selected lines (or records) from a database.<br><br>[[Image:awk-1.png|thumb|right|400px|Using the awk command to display matches of the pattern '''ford'''.]]
# Issue the following linux command all to display all lines (i.e. records) in the '''cars.txt''' database that matches the pattern (or "make") called '''ford''':<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">awk '/ford/ {print}' cars.txt</span><br><br>We will use '''pipeline commands''' to both display stdout to the screen and save to files for <u>confirmation</u> of running these pipeline commands when run a '''checking-script''' later in this investigation.<br><br>
# Issue the following linux pipeline command all to display records<br>in the '''cars.txt''' database that contain the pattern (i.e. make) '''ford''':<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">awk '/ford/' cars.txt | tee awk-1.txt</span><br><br>What do you notice? You should notice ALL lines displayed <u>without </u> using a '''search criteria'''.<br><br>You can use these '''variables''' with the '''print''' command for further processing.<br>We will discuss the following variables in this tutorial:<br><br>[[Image:awk-2.png|thumb|right|400px|Using the awk command to print search results by '''field number'''.]]'''$0''' - Current record (entire line)<br>'''$1''' - First field in record<br>'''$n''' - nth field in record<br>'''NR''' - Record Number (order in database)<br> '''NF''' - Number of fields in current record<br><br>For a listing of more variables, please consult your course notes.<br><br>
# Issue the following linux pipeline command to display the '''model''', '''year''', '''quantity''' and price<br>in the '''cars.txt''' database for makes of '''chevy''':<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">awk '/chevy/ {print $2,$3,$4,$5}' cars.txt | tee awk-2.txt</span><br><br>Notice that a '''space''' is the delimiter for the fields that appear as standard output.<br><br>The '''tilde character''' '''~''' is used to search for a pattern or display standard output for a particular field.<br><br>
# Issue the following linux pipeline command to display all '''plymouths''' ('''plyms''')<br>by '''model name''', '''price''' and '''quantity''':<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">awk '$1 ~ /plyms/ {print $2,$3,$4,$5}' cars.txt | tee awk-3.txt</span><br><br>You can also use '''comparison operators''' to specify conditions for processing with matched patterns<br>when using the awk command. Since they are used WITHIN the awk expression,<br>they are not confused with redirection symbols<br><br>[[Image:awk-3.png|thumb|right|400px|Using the awk command to display results based on '''comparison operators'''.]]'''<''' &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Less than<br>'''<=''' &nbsp;&nbsp;Less than or equal<br>'''>''' &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Greater than<br>'''>=''' &nbsp;&nbsp;Greater than or equal<br>'''==''' &nbsp;&nbsp;Equal<br>'''!=''' &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Not equal<br><br>
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