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Tutorial10: Shell Scripting - Part 1

No change in size, 16 March
INVESTIGATION 4: CONTROL FLOW STATEMENTS
# To generate a '''test error''', copy and paste the following '''test''' command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">&#91;$number1 -gt $number2&#93;</span><br><br>The reason for the error was that you need '''spaces''' between the '''square brackets''' and the '''test condition'''.<br><br>
# Copy and paste the following (correct) '''test''' command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">&#91; $number1 -gt $number2 &#93;</span><br><br>
# Issue a command to view the value of the '''exit status''' of the previously issued '''test''' command.<br>You should notice that is works properly.<br><br>Now that we have learned how to test conditions, let's learn about '''control-flow''' statements.<br><br>'''Logic statementsLOGIC STATEMENTS''' are used to create '''different paths''' or directions that the shell script will take<br>based on the <u>result</u> of the '''test condition'''. In this tutorial,<br>we will only focus on the '''if''' and '''if-else''' logic statement.<br><br>
# Use a text editor like vi or nano to create the text file called '''if-1.bash''' (eg. <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">vi if-1.bash</span>)<br><br>
# Enter the following lines in your shell script:<br><span style="font-family:courier;font-weight:bold;">#!/bin/bash<br>num1=5<br>num2=10<br>if [ $num1 -lt $num2 ]<br>then<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;echo "num1 is less than num2"<br>fi</span><br><br>
# Save your editing session and exit the text editor (eg. with vi: press '''ESC''', then type ''':wx''' followed by '''ENTER''').<br><br>[[Image:if-3.png|thumb|right|330px|Output of a shell script using the '''if-else''' control-flow statement.]]
# Issue the following Linux command to add execute permissions for your shell script:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">chmod u+x if-3.bash</span><br><br>
# Run your shell script by issuing:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">./if-3.bash</span><br><br>Try running the script several times with numbers '''different''' and '''equal''' to each other to confirm that the shell script works correctly.<br><br>Let's learn how to use a '''loop''' with shell scripting. In this tutorial, we will only focus on one simple use with the '''for''' loop.<br><br>'''Loop StatementsLOOP STATEMENTS'''<br><br>[[Image:loop-1.png|thumb|right|210px|Example of using the '''for''' looping control-flow statement.]]''A <b>loop statement</b> is a series of steps or sequence of statements executed repeatedly<br>zero or more times satisfying the given condition is satisfied.''<br>Reference: https://www.chegg.com/homework-help/definitions/loop-statement-3<br><br>
# Use a text editor like vi or nano to create the text file called '''for-1.bash''' (eg. <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier;">vi for-1.bash</span>)<br><br>
# Enter the following lines in your shell script:<br><span style="font-family:courier;font-weight:bold;">#!/bin/bash<br>echo<br>for x in 5 4 3 2 1<br>do<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;echo $x<br>done<br>echo "blast-off!"<br>echo</span><br><br>
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