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OPS235 Lab 2

393 bytes added, 03:49, 18 September 2020
Part 2: Installing from a Network (Minimal install - CLI)
[[Category:OPS235]]
 
 
= LAB PREPARATION =
[[Image:vmware-1a.png|thumb|right|400px|At the end of lab2, your VMware Workstation application will contain '''4 virtual machines''' ('''c7host''' in your '''VMware Workstation''' application, and '''centos1, centos2, centos3 VMs''' in your '''KVM''' application). You will now have the option to run one virtual machine at a time, or run all machines simultaneously to learn about networking (covered in later labs) ]]
<blockquote><code style="font-family:courier;font-size:1.2em;margin-left:20px;">
<br>linuxefi /vmlinuz-3.10.0-6931062.21.2.el7.x86_64 root=/dev/mapper/centos_c7host-root ro crashkernel=auto rd.lvm.lv=centos_c7host/root rd.lvm.lv=centos_c7host/swap rhgb quiet LANG=en_CA.UTF-8 <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">kvm-intel.nested=1</span><br> initrdefi /initramfs-3.10.0-6931062.21.2.el7.x86_64.img
</code></blockquote>
<blockquote><code style="font-family:courier;font-size:1.2em;margin-left:20px;">
<br>
linuxefi /boot/vmlinuz-3.10.0-327.18.21062.el7.x86_64 root=/dev/mapper/centos_c7host-root ro crashkernel=auto rd.lvm.lv=centos_c7host/root rd.lvm.lv=centos_c7host/swap rhgb quiet LANG=en_CA.UTF-8 <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">kvm-intel.nested=1</span><br>initrdefi /boot/initramfs-3.10.0-327.18.21062.el7.x86_64.img
</code></blockquote>
<ol><li value="4">Save your editing changes, close the virtual machine application, and <u>'''reboot'''</u> your c7host VM.</li>
<li>If you configured your c7host VM for nested VMs, then you should get the output <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">Y</span></code></b> when you issue the following command:<br><b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">cat /sys/module/kvm_intel/parameters/nested</span></code></b></li><ul><li>For '''AMD''' processors, check the /sys/module/'''kvm_amd'''/parameters/nested file.</li></ul><ul><li>And if kvm_intel directory doesn't exist, double-check your '''Processors => Virtualization Engine (Intel VT-x/EPT...)''' settings in VMWare Workstation.</li></ul>
</ol>
:: '''Memory:''' 2048MB
:: '''Disk space:''' 15GB
:: '''CPUs:''' 12
[[Image:Kvm-warning.jpg|thumb|right|400px|You may see this warning when creating your first VM inside CentOS. Select''' ''Don't ask me about these directories again'' '''and click''' ''Yes'''''.]]
{{Admon/important|Use same root password / regular username / regular user passwords for c7host and ALL VMs|To simplify the lab checking process make certain that you use the identical root password, regular username, and regular username password for VMs that you create in this labs as you did for c7host machine in lab1.<br><br>}}
<br>
<ol><li value="13"><span style="background-color:yellow;">Repeat the steps as you did in the previous investigation ([httphttps://zenitwiki.senecaccdot.onsenecacollege.ca/wiki/index.php/OPS235_Lab_2_-_CentOS7_-_HD2OPS235_Lab_2#Part_1:_Install_KVM_Virtualization_Application Investigation1 Part 1]) to '''stop and disable firewalld, install iptables-services, start and enable iptables''' for this newly-created VM.</span></li>
<li><span style="background-color:yellow;">Repeat the steps as you did with c7host post-install to '''disable SELinux''' and perform a '''yum update'''.</span></li>
<li>Issue the following command to obtain the IPADDR for your centos1 VM to record in your lab2 logbook: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">ifconfig</span></code></b></li>
# Create the VM (called '''centos2''') as you did with the ''centos1'' machine.
# Make certain to enter the name: '''centos2''', <u>AND</u> then select the option: '''Customize configuration before install''', and select '''Copy Host CPU Configuration''', click '''Apply''', and then click '''Begin Installation'''.
#When selecting the install options for centos2, do the same operation that you did in centos1 (but with '''Minimal Install''' software selection instead), but after '''automatically creating the partitions''', reduce the size of the root LVM partition logical volume to '''8 GiB''' and add an LVM partition a logical volume with a size of '''2 GiB''' (mount point: '''/home''', name: '''home''', and make certain root and /home partitions logical volumes have '''ext4''' file system).<br><br>
# <span style="background-color:yellow;">Complete the installation. Login to your regular user account.</span>
#<span style="background-color:yellow;">Repeat the steps as you did in the previous investigation ([httphttps://zenitwiki.senecaccdot.onsenecacollege.ca/wiki/index.php/OPS235_Lab_2_-_CentOS7_-_SSD2OPS235_Lab_2#Part_2Part_1:_Install_KVM_Virtualization_Application Investigation1 Part 1]) to '''stop and disable firewalld, install iptables-services, start and enable iptables''' for this newly-created VM.</span>
# <span style="background-color:yellow;">Repeat the steps as you did with c7host post-install to '''disable SELinux''' (using the command 'vi' instead of 'vim') and perform a '''yum update'''.</span>
# The ifconfig command is not available in centos2. Issue the following command to obtain and record your centos2 IPADDR in your lab2 logbook: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">ip address</span></code></b>
:::*Home: http://mirror.netflash.net/centos/7/os/x86_64/
:: '''Kickstart File URL (Kernel options): '''
:::* Seneca Lab:''' <span style="color:green;font-weight:bold">ks=</span>https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/centos7-kickstart.cfg:::* Home:''' <span style="color:green;font-weight:bold">ks=</span>https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/centos7-kickstart-ext.cfg
:: '''VM Image Pathname:''' /var/lib/libvirt/images/centos3.qcow2
:: '''Memory:''' 2048MB ('''IMPORTANT''' Do not use less than 2048MB during installation.)
# Create the VM (called '''centos3''')
# During the install, copy the network URL, then click the '''URL options''' to expand the '''kernel options''' input textbox. Type the following in the kernel options textbox: <ul><li>Seneca Lab:''' <span style="color:green;font-weight:bold">ks=</span>https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/centos7-kickstart.cfg</li><li>'''Home:''' <span style="color:green;font-weight:bold">ks=</span>https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/centos7-kickstart-ext.cfg</li></ul>
# Then click the '''forward''' button to proceed. Make certain to select the correct Memory Size and Disk Space size shown in the VM Details above
# Make certain to enter the name: '''centos3''', <u>AND</u> then select the option: '''Customize configuration before install''', and select '''Copy Host CPU Configuration''', click '''Apply''', and then click '''Begin Installation'''.
# Record the time taken to install, and compare this to the time taken by the previous installations.<br><br>If during the installation, you see the message at the bottom '''Pane is Dead''', click the '''Virtual Machine''' menu at the top, select '''Shut Down''' -> '''Force Off''', '''right-click''' on '''centos3''' in the ''virtual manager'' window and select '''Delete'''. Redo the VM setup for a new instance of the ''centos3'' VM.<br><br>
# What happens when the installation is finished?
# Click '''In a web browser''', click the kickstart file (KS) link above. This link in is a web-browser, and record text file. Read through it to find the following information (pay attention to access lines starting with #) and record it in your centos3 VMLab Logbook:<ul><li>'''Regular-user account name'''</li><li>'''Regular-user account password'''</li><li>'''Root Password'''</li></ul>
# Boot the virtual machine and log in (use the user ID and password information from the previous step to gain access to this VM).
# Compare the experience to the first time you booted the other virtual machines.
# <span style="background-color:yellow;">Repeat the steps as you did in the previous investigation ([httphttps://zenitwiki.senecaccdot.onsenecacollege.ca/wiki/index.php/OPS235_Lab_2_-_CentOS7_-_SSD2OPS235_Lab_2#Part_2Part_1:_Install_KVM_Virtualization_Application Investigation1 Part 1]) to '''stop and disable firewalld, install iptables-services, start and enable iptables''' for this newly-created VM.</span>
# <span style="background-color:yellow;">Repeat the steps as you did with c7host post-install to '''disable SELinux''' and perform a '''yum update'''.</span>
# The ifconfig command may not be available in centos3. Issue the following command to obtain and record your centos2 IPADDR in your lab2 logbook: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">ip address</span></code></b>
<li> Make certain you are in your '''/var/lib/libvirt/images directory'''. Restore the original image from the backup from your home directory to your '''images''' directory by typing this command:<br><b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">gunzip < ~YourUserId/centos3.qcow2.backup.gz > centos3.qcow2'''</span></code></b></li>
<li> Restart the VM. Is it working normally?</li>
<li> Create compressed backups of your other virtual machines (ie. '''centos1''' and '''centos2''').</li><li> You should make a copy of the xml XML configuration file in case you "wipe" and re-install the host machine, and want to add a restored VM backups to the virtual machine manager list. We will demonstrate using the centos3 xml XML configuration file, and prove that a "clone" can be added to your list.Please perform the following step:</li>
<li> Execute the following command: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">virsh dumpxml centos3 > centos3.xml</span></code></b></li>
<li> Examine the file <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">centos3.xml</span></code></b>. What does it contain? What format is it in?<br></li></ol>
 
=== Part 2: Restoring Virtual Machines ===
# We will now learn how to download a compressed image file and XML configuration file and add it as a VM to the Virtual Machine Manager menu.
# Issue the following commands:<ul><li><b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">wget https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2/centos4.qcow2.backup.gz</span></code></b></li><li><b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">wget https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/centos4.xml</span></code></b></li></ul>
# Copy these files to the '''/var/lib/libvirt/images''' directory and decompress the qcow2 image file.
# Make certain your present working directory is: '''/var/lib/libvirt/images'''
{{Admon/important|Virtual Machine Does not Shutdown from Command|If the Virtual machine fails to shutdown from the <code>virsh shutdown</code> command, then you can go to the '''Virtual Machine manager''' and '''halt''' or '''shutdown''' within the VM itself, then you can click the '''PowerOff''' button in the VM window. You'll want to avoid a forced shutdown since those are equivalent to yanking the power cord out of the wall on a physical machine!|}}
<ol><li value="9">Open a Bash shell terminal and login as root.</li>
<li>Use a text editor (such as <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">vi</span></code></b> or <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">nano</span></code></b>) to create a Bash Shell script called: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">backupVM.bash</span></code></b> in /root's home /bin directory.</li>
<li>Enter the following text content into your text-editing session:</li></ol>
<code style="color:#3366CC;font-family:courier;font-size:.9em;">
<ol>
<li value="15">Save, set permissions, and then run that shell script to backup centos1. Confirm that this script did backup this image to root's home directory</li><li>Use the <b><code>wget</code></b> command to download, study, and run the following shell scripts on-line:<blockquote><b><code><span style=" pointer-events:none;cursor:default;color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/vm-start-text.bash<br>https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/vm-stop-text.bash</span></code></b><br><b><code><span style=" pointer-events:none;cursor:default;color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/vm-start.bash<br>https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/vm-stop.bash</span></code></b></blockquote></li><li>Try to understand what these Bash Shell scripts do.</li><li>You have completed lab2. Proceed to Completing The Lab, and follow the instructions for "lab sign-off".</li></ol>
= LAB 2 SIGN-OFF (SHOW INSTRUCTOR) =
===Exclusively for Summer 2020 term, submissions are accepted only online!===
Follow the submission instructions for lab 2 on Blackboard.
{{Admon/important|Backup ALL of your VMs!|If you have successfully completed this lab, make a new backup of all of your virtual machines onto your USB Key.}}
 
:'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
# Inside each virtual machine, run <b><code>ip a</code></b> on the command line. Open a Terminal window in centos1 to do so. You'll need the IP address of each machine for the next steps.
# Switch to your '''c7host''' VM, open a terminal, login as root, and change directory to '''/root/bin'''.
# Issue the Linux command: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">wget https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~ops235/lab2labs/lab2-check.bash</span></code></b>
# Give the '''lab2-check.bash''' file execute permissions (for the file owner).
# Run the shell script and if any warnings, make fixes and re-run shell script until you receive "congratulations" message.
[[Category:OPS235]]
[[Category:OPS235 Labs]]
[[Category:CentOS 7]]
[[Category:SSD2]]
[[Category:Digital Classroom]]

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