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OPS235 Lab 7

320 bytes added, 16:52, 25 November 2020
Part 1: Confirming sshd service is Running on VMs.
|style="padding-left:20px;"|Additional Utilities<br>
[http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man7/hostname.7.html hostname]<br>
[http://linux.die.net/man/8/restorecon restorecon]<br><br>Managing Services<br>[http://linuxwww.diedsm.netfordham.edu/cgi-bin/man/8/chkconfig chkconfig-cgi.pl?topic=systemctl systemctl]<br><br>
Configuration Files<br>
[httphttps://linuxwww.aboutfreebsd.comorg/librarycgi/cmd/blcmdl5_ssh_configman.htm cgi?query=ssh_config&sektion=5 ssh_config]<br>[httphttps://linuxwww.aboutfreebsd.com/od/commandsorg/lcgi/blcmdl5_sshdconman.htm cgi?sshd_config(5) sshd_config]<br>
|style="padding-left:20px;"|SSH Reference<br>
[http://support.suso.com/supki/SSH_Tutorial_for_Linux A good ssh tutorial]<br>
# Switch to your '''c7host''' VM.
# Create a file in your current directory of your c7host machine with some text in it called: '''myfile.txt'''
# Issue Ensure you've successfully connected to the VPN required for Matrix (https://inside.senecacollege.ca/its/services/vpn/studentvpn.html). Then issue the following command (using your Matrix login id):<br><b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">scp &nbsp; myfile.txt &nbsp; yourmatrixid@matrix.senecac.on.ca:/home/yourmatrixid</span></code></b><br>(followed by your Matrix password)<br>What did this command do?
# Issue the following single command (arguments are separated by a space - use your Matrix login id):<br><b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">ssh &nbsp; yourmatrixid@matrix.senecac.on.ca &nbsp; ls /home/yourmatrixid/myfile.txt</span></code></b><br>(followed by your Matrix password)<br>What did this command do?<br>Issue the following Linux command:<br><b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">ssh &nbsp; yourmatrixid@matrix.senecac.on.ca &nbsp; cat /home/yourmatrixid/myfile.txt</span></code></b><br>How do these commands differ from using issuing the ssh command without the ls or cat command? How is this useful?<br><br>The client ssh application contains the utlities: '''ssh''', '''scp''' and '''sftp''' (learned in ULI101) to connect to remote Linux servers in order to issue commands or transfer files between Linux servers. You can install the SSH service on your Linux server, although this has already been performed upon installation. We will now confirm that the ssh service is running on all of your VMs.<br><br>
# OpenSSH should have been installed by default. Let's confirm this by issuing the command:<br /> <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">rpm -qa | grep ssh</span></code></b>
<li>Make sure the '''sshd''' service is running on '''all 3 of your VM's'''</li>
</ol>
 
===Part 2: SSH Server Security Configuration===
# Try SSHing from your c7host VM to your centos1 VM as your regular user accountname. Did it work?
# Create another regular user called: '''other'''
# Set the password for the newly-created called called '''other'''
# Try SSHing from your c7host VM to your centos1 VM for the account called '''other'''. Why didn't it work?
# Edit the file '''/etc/ssh/sshd_config''' to add the account '''other''' for the '''AllowUsers''' option (use a space to separate usernames instead of a comma).
'''Answer INVESTIGATION 1 observations / questions in your lab log book.'''
 
=INVESTIGATION 2: ADDITIONAL METHODS TO SECURE YOUR SSH SERVER =
<li>Make <u>certain</u> that you are in your centos2 VM and that you are logged in as a '''regular user''' (i.e. NOT root!) (you have been warned!)</li>
<li>To generate a keypair (public/private keys), issue the following command: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">ssh-keygen</span></code></b></li>
<livalue="14">After generating the keys it prompts you for the location to save the keys. The default is '''~/.ssh''' Your private key will be saved as <b>id_rsa</b> and your public key will be saved as '''id_rsa.pub'''. Press ENTER to accept the default, .</li><li>You will then enter be prompted for a '''pass-phrase used '''. The pass-phrase must be entered in order to establish use your identityprivate key. Pass-phrases are more secure than passwords and should be lengthy, hard to guess and reeasy to remember. For example one pass-enter phrase that meets this criteria might be ''"seneca students like to dance at 4:00am"''. Avoid famous phrases such as ''"to be or not to be"'' as they are easy to guess. It is possible to leave the pass-phrase blank but this is dangerous. It means that if a hacker were able to get into your account they could then use your private key to verifyaccess other systems you use.<br><br>The output should appear similar as what is shown below:</li></ol>
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</pre>
<ol><li value="15"> After generating the keys it prompts you for the location to save the keys. The default is '''~/.ssh''' Your private key will be saved as <b>id_rsa</b> and your public key will be saved as '''id_rsa.pub'''</li><li>You will then be prompted for a '''pass-phrase'''. The pass-phrase must be entered in order to use your private key. Pass-phrases are more secure than passwords and should be lengthy, hard to guess and easy to remember. For example one pass-phrase that meets this criteria might be ''"seneca students like to dance at 4:00am"''. Avoid famous phrases such as ''"to be or not to be"'' as they are easy to guess. It is possible to leave the pass-phrase blank but this is dangerous. It means that if a hacker were able to get into your account they could then use your private key to access other systems you use.<br><br></li><li16>Now issue the command <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub ops235@centos3</span></code></b></li>
<li>When prompted for password, enter OPS235's root password</li>
<li>Try using ssh to now log into your '''centos3''' VM <u>from</u> your '''centos2''' VM. What happens? Were you required to use your pass-phrase?</li>
# Run the graphical program remotely by issuing only one Linux command:<br> <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">ssh -X -C yourUserID@centos1 &nbsp; gedit</span></code></b> (Note: ignore warning messages).
# Exit the gedit application.
# Experiment with running other GUI applications (in the /bin directory with applications starting with the letter "x" via '''ssh''' (for example: xeyesxev or xchat).
'''Answer INVESTIGATION 2 observations / questions in your lab log book.'''
 
=INVESTIGATION 3: MANAGING FIREWALLS FOR PROTECTION &amp; TROUBLESHOOTING =
# Issue the following Linux command: <b><code><span style="pointer-events: none;cursor: default;color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">iptables -P INPUT DROP</span></code></b>
# Issue the '''iptables -L''' command. Can you see the policy to DROP all incoming connections?
# Although you have set a default policy to DROP all incoming connections, there is a problem: now, you cannot browse the Internet. You can confirm that by opening a SEPARATE web-browser and perform a Net-search.<br><br>In order to fix that problem, you can make an exception to allow incoming web-based traffic (via port 80). Those iptables commands to create exceptions are more complex since you need to determine: <ul><li>'''Where each rules appears in the chain'''? (order can be important)</li><li>'''Which protocol(s)''' are affected (eg. tcp, udp, icmp)</li><li>'''What source or destination IP Addresses''' are affected?</li><li>'''What port numbers''' are affected?</li><li>'''What action to take''' if all of the above conditions are met? (eg. ACCEPT, REJECT, DROP, or LOG)</li></ul><br>'''iptables Command Structure (for setting exceptions):<br>(NOTE: If element in column is not specified in the iptables command, then rule relates to ALL elements)'''<table width="100%" cellpadding="10" cellspacing="0" border="1"><tr valign="top><td>Place Rule in Chain</td><td>Chain Name</td><td>Specify Protocol</td><td>Source/Destination IPADDR</td><td>Port Number</td><td>Action<br> -&gt;</td><td>Target</td></tr><tr valign="top"><td>'''-A''' (add / Append to bottom of chain)<br>'''-I''' (insert at top of chain)<br>'''-i I CHAIN-NAME 5''' (insert before line 5) </td><td>'''INPUT'''<br>'''OUTPUT'''<br>'''FORWARD'''<br>'''CHAIN-NAME'''</td><td>'''-p tcp''' (tcp packets)<br>'''-p udp''' (datagram packets)<br>'''-p tcp,udp,icmp''' (combined)<br><br>(refer to '''/etc/protocols''' )</td><td>'''-s IPADDR''' (originating IPADDR)<br>'''-d IPADDR''' (destination IPADDR)</td><td>'''<span style="font-family:courier">--</span>sport 22''' (originating port 22 - SSH)<br>'''<span style="font-family:courier">--</span>sport dport 80''' (originating destined port 80 - http)<br><br>(refer to '''/etc/services''')</td><td>'''-j''' </td><td>'''ACCEPT'''<br>'''REJECT'''<br>'''DROP'''<br>'''LOG'''</td></tr></table><br>
# Issue the following Linux commands to ensure the loopback interface is not affected by these rules. The computer should be able to communicate with itself with any state and protocol:<br><b><code><span style="pointer-events: none;cursor: default;color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">iptables -A INPUT -i lo -p all -j ACCEPT</span></code><br><code><span style="pointer-events: none;cursor: default;color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">iptables -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT</span></code></b>
# Issue the following Linux command to ADD an exception to the INPUT chain to allow web-based incoming traffic (ie. port 80):<br><b><code><span style="pointer-events: none;cursor: default;color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT</span></code></b>
# Provide your external facing address, and provide another lab-mate to ping that external facing address. Were they successful?
# Have your lab-mate determine THEIR external facing address and obtain that IP Address.
# Issue the following iptables command to allow an exception for pings from your lab-mate:<br><b><code><span style="pointer-events: none;cursor: default;color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -s {neighbour's exeternal external facing address} -j ACCEPT</span></code></b>
# Have your neighbour repeat pinging your external facing IP Address. What happened? Why?
# Have your neighbour try to SSH into YOUR c7host. Were they Successful?
# List the iptables rules for the INPUT chain. What happened to your iptables rules for the INPUT chain?
# Proceed to the next part to learn how to learn how to make your iptables rules persistent.
 
=== Part 3: Making iptables Policies Persistent ===
# Set the default INPUT policy to ACCEPT by issuing the following command: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT</span></code></b>
# Verify there are no iptables rules by issuing the command: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">iptables -L</span></code></b>
# Make a backup of the file '''/etc/sysconfig/iptables''' by issuing the command:<br><b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">cp /etc/sysconfig/iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables.bk</span></code></b>
#To make the iptables rules '''persistent''' (i.e. keeps rules when system restarts), you issue the command: <br><b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables</span></code></b>
# Verify that the file '''/etc/sysconfig/iptables''' exists.
= LAB 7 SIGN-OFF (SHOW INSTRUCTOR) =
===Exclusively for Summer 2020 term, submissions are accepted only online!===
Follow the submission instructions for lab 7 on Blackboard.
{{Admon/important|Time for a new backup!|If you have successfully completed this lab, make a new backup of your virtual machines as well as your host machine.}}
# Switch to your '''c7host''' VM and '''su -''' into root.
# Change to the '''/root/bin''' directory.
# Issue the Linux command: <b><code><span style="color:#3366CC;font-size:1.2em;">wget httphttps://matrixict.senecac.onsenecacollege.ca/~murray.saulops235/ops235labs/lab7-check.bash</span></code></b>
# Give the '''lab7-check.bash''' file execute permissions (for the file owner).
# Run the shell script and if any warnings, make fixes and re-run shell script until you receive "congratulations" message.
#Arrange proof of the following on the screen:<br><blockquote><span style="color:green;font-size:1.5em;">&#x2713;</span> '''centos2''' VM:<blockquote><ul><li>have logged into centos3 VM using '''public key authentication''' (with a pass-phrase)</li></ul></blockquote><span style="color:green;font-size:1.5em;">&#x2713;</span> '''c7host''' Machine:<blockquote><ul><li>have tunneled Xwindows application from '''centos1''' via ssh</li><li>Run the '''lab7-check.bash''' script in front of your instructor (must have all <b><code><span style="color:#66cc00;border:thin solid black;font-size:1.2em;">&nbsp;OK&nbsp;</span></code></b> messages)</li></ul></blockquote><span style="color:green;font-size:1.5em;">&#x2713;</span> '''Lab7''' log-book filled out.
 
= Practice For Quizzes, Tests, Midterm &amp; Final Exam =
[[Category:OPS235]]
[[Category:OPS235 Labs]]
[[Category:CentOSS 7]]
[[Category:SSD2]]
[[Category:Digital Classroom]]
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