- Ant is a Java-based build tool. Instead of a model where it is extended with shell-based commands, ant is extended using Java classes
- Instead of writing shell commands, the configuration files are XML-based, calling out a target tree where various tasks get executed.
- Installing Ant :
- Add the bin directory to your path. Set the ANT_HOME environment variable to the directory where you installed Ant. Assume ant is installed in c:\ant\. The following sets up the environment:
- set ANT_HOME=c:\ant
- set JAVA_HOME=...
- set PATH=%PATH%;%ANT_HOME%\bin
- ant buildfiles are written in XML – build.xml. Each buildfile contains one project and at least one (default) target.
<?xml version="1.0"?> <!-- compile java files from all subdirectories --> <project name="First" default="build" basedir="."> <target name="build" > <javac srcdir="." debug="false" optimize="false" includes="**/*.java" /> </target> </project>
- A project has three attributes: name: the name of the project. default: the default target to use when no target is supplied. basedir: the base directory from which all path calculations are done
- Each project defines one or more targets which are a set of task elements you want to execute
- When starting ant, you can select which target(s) you want to have executed
- A target has the following attributes: name: the name of the target. depends: a comma-separated list of names of targets. if: the name of the property that must be set in order for this target to execute
- It should be noted, however, that Ant's depends attribute only specifies the order in which targets should be executed - it does not affect whether the target that specifies the dependency(s) gets executed if the dependent target(s) did not (need to) run.
- Note: The if and unless attributes only enable or disable the target to which they are attached. They do not control whether or not targets that a conditional target depends upon get executed. In fact, they do not even get evaluated until the target is about to be executed, and all its predecessors have already run. (See code below)
<target name="myTarget" depends="myTarget.check" if="myTarget.run"> <echo>Files foo.txt and bar.txt are present.</echo> </target> <target name="myTarget.check"> <condition property="myTarget.run"> <and> <available file="foo.txt"/> <available file="bar.txt"/> </and> </condition> </target>
- In Cygwin in the build folder. Just typing
ant, will build the default target of the project. But typing
ant assign1.testfor example, will start from mentioned target.
- Also, option -f will build any files that's not named build.xml e.g.
ant -f buildHudson.xml
- We can create a new ant script e.g. buildHudson.xml that triggers the target(assign1.test) of main build file(build.xml) of the project. See below:
<project name="assign1_MY" basedir="." default="myTarget"> <target name="assign1.build.call"> <!-- Call the target that does everything --> <ant antfile="build.xml" target="assign1.test"/> </target> <target name="myTarget.check" depends="assign1.build.call"> <echo>The assign1.build was called!</echo> </target> </project>