Difference between revisions of "Tutorial 1: Using Your Matrix Server Account"

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(Purpose of Having a Matrix Account)
(Part 1: Using the Linux Shell)
 
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=LEARNING ABOUT YOUR MATRIX SERVER ACCOUNT=
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=USING YOUR MATRIX SERVER ACCOUNT=
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
===Main Objectives of this Practice Tutorial===
 
===Main Objectives of this Practice Tutorial===
  
  
:* Learn how to connect to your '''Matrix''' server account from a remote computer.
+
:* Learn how to access your '''Matrix''' server account from a '''remote''' computer.
  
:* Learn how to effectively use the '''Linux Shell''' (command prompt).
+
:* Learn several ways to '''exit''' your Matrix Linux Account session.
  
 
:* Understand the '''Linux command structure''' and how to get '''help''' with Linux command usage.
 
:* Understand the '''Linux command structure''' and how to get '''help''' with Linux command usage.
  
:* Perform the '''first two sections on the online assignment #1''' to issue '''general Linux commands'''.
+
:* Become efficient with '''Linux command line editing''' by using '''short-cut keys'''.
  
:* '''Exit''' your Matrix Linux Account
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:* Perform '''the first section and half of the second section of online assignment #1'''.
  
:* Perform '''Review Questions''' for '''additional Linux Command Practice'''<br><br>
+
:* Perform '''LINUX PRACTICE QUESTIONS''' for additional practice<br><br>
  
 
===Tutorial Reference Material===
 
===Tutorial Reference Material===
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|colspan="2" |Slides:<ul><li>[https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~murray.saul/uli101/ULI101-Week1.pdf PDF] | [https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~murray.saul/uli101/ULI101-Week1.pptx PPTX]</li></ul>Tutorials:<ul><li>[[HOWTO: Access Your Matrix Account]]</li><li>[http://czegel.com/seneca/uli101/lectures/Lecture1.html Les Czegel's Week 1 Notes (HTML)]</li></ul>Windows SSH client Software:<ul><li>[http://www.sfsu.edu/ftp/win/ssh/SSHSecureShellClient-3.2.9.exe SSH/SFTP]</li><li>[http://the.earth.li/%7Esgtatham/putty/latest/x86/putty.exe Putty]</li><li>[https://www.bitvise.com/ssh-client-download Bitvise SSH Client]</li><li>[https://mobaxterm.mobatek.net/download-home-edition.html MovaXterm]</li></ul>
 
|colspan="2" |Slides:<ul><li>[https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~murray.saul/uli101/ULI101-Week1.pdf PDF] | [https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~murray.saul/uli101/ULI101-Week1.pptx PPTX]</li></ul>Tutorials:<ul><li>[[HOWTO: Access Your Matrix Account]]</li><li>[http://czegel.com/seneca/uli101/lectures/Lecture1.html Les Czegel's Week 1 Notes (HTML)]</li></ul>Windows SSH client Software:<ul><li>[http://www.sfsu.edu/ftp/win/ssh/SSHSecureShellClient-3.2.9.exe SSH/SFTP]</li><li>[http://the.earth.li/%7Esgtatham/putty/latest/x86/putty.exe Putty]</li><li>[https://www.bitvise.com/ssh-client-download Bitvise SSH Client]</li><li>[https://mobaxterm.mobatek.net/download-home-edition.html MovaXterm]</li></ul>
  
|  style="padding-left:15px;" |Logging Out of Matrix Server
+
|  style="padding-left:15px;" |Matrix Account Access
 
*[https://ss64.com/bash/logout.html logout , exit]<br>
 
*[https://ss64.com/bash/logout.html logout , exit]<br>
*[https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-typing-Ctrl+C-and-Ctrl+D-in-the-Linux-terminal &lt;ctrl&gt;&lt;d&gt;]<br>
+
*[https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-typing-Ctrl+C-and-Ctrl+D-in-the-Linux-terminal &lt;ctrl&gt;&lt;d&gt;]
Account Access
 
 
*[http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man1/passwd.1.html passwd]<br>
 
*[http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man1/passwd.1.html passwd]<br>
Shell Command Line Editing
+
Command Line Editing
 
*[https://www.ostechnix.com/list-useful-bash-keyboard-shortcuts/ Bash Shell Shortcut Keys]<br>
 
*[https://www.ostechnix.com/list-useful-bash-keyboard-shortcuts/ Bash Shell Shortcut Keys]<br>
 
|  style="padding-left:15px;"|General Linux Commands
 
|  style="padding-left:15px;"|General Linux Commands
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|colspan="1" style="padding-left:15px;" width="30%"|Brauer Instructional Videos:<ul><li>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BEH6i_BKOBo&list=PLU1b1f-2Oe90TuYfifnWulINjMv_Wr16N&index=2&t=0s Connecting to Matrix Using SSH Client, Starting the Assignments, and Running UBUNTU Within Windows 10]<br><br></li><li>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wZmZOKLllk&list=PLU1b1f-2Oe90TuYfifnWulINjMv_Wr16N&index=2 Linux File System, Basic Navigation (ls, cd, pwd, tree), Absolute and Relative Paths]</li></ul>
+
|colspan="1" style="padding-left:15px;" width="30%"|Brauer Instructional Videos:<ul><li>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L5RcOngDV_o Connecting to Matrix Using SSH Client, Starting the Assignments, and Running UBUNTU Within Windows 10]<br><br></li><li>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wZmZOKLllk&list=PLU1b1f-2Oe90TuYfifnWulINjMv_Wr16N&index=2 Linux File System, Basic Navigation (ls, cd, pwd, tree), Absolute and Relative Paths]</li></ul>
  
 
|}
 
|}
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= KEY CONCEPTS=
 
= KEY CONCEPTS=
  
===Purpose of Having a Matrix Account===
+
===Purpose of Having a Matrix Linux Server Account===
  
 
While attending Seneca College, you will be using many different computer systems.
 
While attending Seneca College, you will be using many different computer systems.
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|-
 
|-
 
| style="padding-left:0px;width:10%" |'''my.senecacollege.ca'''
 
| style="padding-left:0px;width:10%" |'''my.senecacollege.ca'''
| style="padding-left:15px;width:65%" |Learning Content Management System (Student Grades / Notes / Online Quizzes)
+
| style="padding-left:15px;width:65%" |Learning Content Management System (''Link to Resources'' / ''Student Grades'' / ''Online Quizzes'')
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| style="padding-left:0px;width:10%" |'''ict.senecacollege.ca'''
 
| style="padding-left:0px;width:10%" |'''ict.senecacollege.ca'''
| style="padding-left:15px;width:65%" |Main ICT Webserver
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| style="padding-left:15px;width:65%" |Course website for same material as ULI101 WIKI (see below)
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| style="padding-left:0px;width:10%" |'''wiki.cdot.senecacollege.ca'''
 
| style="padding-left:0px;width:10%" |'''wiki.cdot.senecacollege.ca'''
| style="padding-left:15px;width:65%" |Course WIKIs for Seneca College Students
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| style="padding-left:15px;width:65%" |''Student Notes'' / ''Tutorials'' / ''Practice Questions'' / ''Resources''
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| style="padding-left:0px;width:10%" |'''<span style="color:blue;">matrix.senecacollege.ca</span>'''
 
| style="padding-left:0px;width:10%" |'''<span style="color:blue;">matrix.senecacollege.ca</span>'''
| style="padding-left:15px;width:65%" |Linux Account for Student Practice and Assignment submission
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| style="padding-left:15px;width:65%" |Linux Account for "''hands-on Practice''" and Assignment submission
  
 
|}
 
|}
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[[Image:cli-prompt.png|thumb|right|120px|A '''shell''' is an interface / interpreter to allow a user to communicate with the Linux computer system. ]]
 
[[Image:cli-prompt.png|thumb|right|120px|A '''shell''' is an interface / interpreter to allow a user to communicate with the Linux computer system. ]]
Although you need to study concepts throughout this course, you will also need to learn to '''issue and memorize simple as well as more advanced Linux commands'''. This requires that you practice issuing Linux commands on a frequent basis to become more comfortable when working within the Unix and '''Linux command-line environments'''.
+
Although you need to study concepts (slides) throughout this course, you will also need to get '''hands-on practice running Linux commands as well as performing online tutorials and performing and submitting online course assignments'''.<br>This requires that you '''connect to a Linux server''' and become comfortable with '''issuing Linux commands'''.
  
For this course, it is important to learn how to '''open a command prompt in order to issue commands to perform common tasks'''. In Unix/Linux, a '''shell''' is simply an interface / interpreter to allow a user to communicate with the Linux computer system (server). Linux shells have evolved (improved) over a period of time. You will be using the '''Bash Shell''' which is considered to be user-friendly. By understanding how to issue Linux commands, you can create a file consisting of Linux commands and programming techniques called a '''shell script''' (learned later in this course) to automate tasks to make you a more '''productive''' user and administrator.
+
In Unix/Linux, a '''shell''' is simply an '''interface''' to allow a user to communicate with the Linux computer system (server). Linux shells have evolved (improved) over a period of time. You will be using the '''Bash Shell''' which is considered to be ''user-friendly''. By understanding how to issue Linux commands, you can create a file that contains Linux commands (called a '''shell script''') later in this course to automate tasks to make you a more '''productive''' Linux user and system administrator.
  
===Layout of the Matrix Server===
+
===Layout of the Matrix Linux Server===
[[Image:matrix-layout.png|thumb|right|250px|The Matrix server consists of several Virtual Computers all connected together to form a '''cluster'''. A cluster is a '''cost effective''' alternative to larger servers. ]]
+
[[Image:matrix-layout.png|thumb|right|250px|The Matrix server consists of several Computers connected together to form a '''cluster'''. A '''Linux Cluster''' is a '''cost effective''' alternative to larger servers. ]]
  
The Matrix server consists of '''several Virtual Computers connected together''' to form a '''cluster'''. A cluster is a '''cost effective''' alternative to buying larger servers.
+
The '''Matrix server''' consists of '''several computers connected together''' to form a '''cluster'''.<br>A '''Linux cluster''' is a '''cost effective''' alternative to buying larger servers.
  
All registered students in this course should have an account on the Matrix server.
+
All registered students in this course should have an account on the Matrix server.<br>You will be using this account for the following reasons:
You will be using this account for the following reasons:
 
  
 
:* Issuing '''Linux commands'''
 
:* Issuing '''Linux commands'''
 
:* Becoming productive using the Linux '''command prompt''' ('''shell''')
 
:* Becoming productive using the Linux '''command prompt''' ('''shell''')
 
:* Performing '''Linux Practice Tutorials'''
 
:* Performing '''Linux Practice Tutorials'''
:* Performing '''Linux Assignments''' ('''3''')
+
:* Performing '''Linux Practice Questions'''
:* Practice Issuing '''Linux Command Review Questions'''
+
:* Performing '''Online Linux Assignments''' ('''3''')
  
 
===Connecting to the Seneca Global Portal===
 
===Connecting to the Seneca Global Portal===
 
[[Image:gp1.png|thumb|right|130px|'''Seneca Global Portal''' ]]
 
[[Image:gp1.png|thumb|right|130px|'''Seneca Global Portal''' ]]
  
As of '''September 1 2020''', all Seneca College students are required to connect to the '''Seneca Global Portal'''<br>in order to be able to connect to their '''Matrix''' Linux account. <br><br>Seneca College are "rolling-out" additional measures to improve '''network security'''. One of these measures are to implement<br>'''multi-factored authentication'''.<br><br>''Multi-factor authentication is an electronic authentication method in which a computer user is granted access to a website or application only after successfully presenting two or more pieces of evidence (or factors) to an authentication mechanism: knowledge (something the user and only the user knows).'' Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-factor_authentication<br><br>Although this process will be "rolled-out" over time, the Matrix server is affected for the Fall 2020 semester and onward.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' If you haven't done this yet, please perform the steps provided in the following link:<br>https://inside.senecacollege.ca/its/services/vpn/<br><br>
+
Seneca College is "rolling-out" additional measures to improve '''network security'''. One of these measures<br>is to implement '''multi-factored authentication'''. As of '''September 2020''', all Seneca College students are required<br>to connect to the '''Seneca Global Portal''' in order to be able to connect to their '''Matrix''' Linux account.<br><br>''<b>Multi-factor authentication</b> is an electronic authentication method in which a computer user is granted access to a website or application only after successfully presenting two or more pieces of evidence (or factors) to an authentication mechanism: knowledge (something the user and only the user knows).'' Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-factor_authentication<br><br>You should have received an email message (also available in course announcements) regarding how to setup your Smart Phone to connect and valid via the Seneca Global Portal. '''NOTE:''' If you haven't done this yet, please perform the steps provided in the following link:<br>https://employees.senecacollege.ca/spaces/77/it-services/wiki/view/3722/student-vpn<br><br>
 
   
 
   
In the next investigation, you will learn how to '''connect''' to and '''login''' to your Matrix server account from a remote computer<br>such as your '''home desktop computer''' or your '''laptop computer'''.<br><br>
+
In the next investigation, you will learn how to '''connect''' to and '''login''' to your Matrix server account from a remote computer<br>such as your '''home desktop computer''', '''laptop''' or '''tablet''' computer.<br><br>
 +
 
 +
===Connecting to Your Matrix Account===
 +
[[Image:cli-prompt.png|right|80px|]]
 +
After connecting to the Seneca Global Portal, you can open a '''command terminal'''<br>in your '''Newer Windows 10''', '''Mac''' or '''Linux''' computer and issue the following command:<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;">ssh senecauserid@matrix.senecacollege.ca</span><br><br>
 +
[[Image:ssh-application-icon.png|right|80px|]]
 +
You can also click on the following link to '''download''' and '''install''' a graphical SSH application for your Windows machine:<br>http://www.sfsu.edu/ftp/win/ssh/SSHSecureShellClient-3.2.9.exe<br><br>
  
 
=INVESTIGATION 1: ACCESSING YOUR MATRIX LINUX ACCOUNT=
 
=INVESTIGATION 1: ACCESSING YOUR MATRIX LINUX ACCOUNT=
  
 
+
In this investigation, you will learn how to connect and login to your Matrix account by issuing a command from your computer's text-based terminal<br>and/or by downloading, installing a running a graphical Windows SSH graphical application.
In this section, you will learn various methods of how to access your '''Matrix Linux account''' based on the type of '''Operating System''' on your remove computer.<br>
 
 
<!--
 
<!--
  
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-->
 
-->
  
===CONNECTING TO YOUR MATRIX ACCOUNT FROM COMMAND LINE===
+
===CONNECTING TO YOUR MATRIX ACCOUNT FROM A COMMAND LINE TERMINAL===
  
<br>You need to run an application called '''SSH''' in order to securely connect to your Matrix Linux account where you will learn to work in the Linux environment.<br><br>[[Image:gp1.png|thumb|right|130px|The '''Global Portal''' service must be connected.]]
+
[[Image:gp1.png|thumb|right|130px|The '''Global Portal''' service must be connected.]]
 +
You will now learn a quick and simple method of connecting to your Matrix account by opening<br>a text-based '''terminal''' (in any OS) and issuing the '''ssh command'''.<br><br>
  
'''If you <u>quickly</u> want to connect to your Matrix account, then perform the following steps:'''<br><br>
+
'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
# Before proceeding, make certain that your '''Global Portal''' is connected.<br><br>If you haven't set this up, refer to the following link for instructions;<br>https://inside.senecacollege.ca/its/services/vpn/<br><br>
+
# Before proceeding, make certain that your '''Seneca Global Portal is connected'''.<br><br>If you haven't set this up, refer to the following link for instructions;<br>https://employees.senecacollege.ca/spaces/77/it-services/wiki/view/3722/student-vpn<br><br>'''NOTE:''' You only have to connect to your Seneca Global Portal once during the day, or while you are logged into your computer.<br><br>
# Determine which operating system that your computer is using.
+
# Determine which operating system that your computer is using.<br><br>
# Refer to the following table for connecting to your Matrix account based on your '''current operating system'''.<br><br>
+
# Try connecting to your Matrix account using the instructions in the table below based on <u>your</u> '''current operating system'''.<br><br>
 
<table style="margin-left:50px;">
 
<table style="margin-left:50px;">
   <tr valign="top">
+
   <tr valign="top" style="text-align:center;">
     <td>
+
     <th>'''Newer Version of Windows 10:'''</th>
'''SSH from Newer Version of Windows 10:'''<br>  
+
    <th>'''MacOSX:''' </th>
*From the start menu, type '''cmd'''
+
    <th>'''Linux:''' </th>
*In the command line, enter the following command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-size:.75em;">ssh senecausername@matrix.senecacollege.ca</span>
+
  </tr>
*Enter your password when prompted.<br>Answer '''yes''' to any questions it may ask you.
+
  <tr>
 +
<td>
 +
*From the start menu, type '''cmd''' and launch program
 +
*In the command terminal, enter the following command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-size:.75em;">ssh senecausername@matrix.senecacollege.ca</span>
 
     </td>
 
     </td>
 
     <td>
 
     <td>
'''SSH from macOS:'''<br>
+
*Click ''Launchpad'' icon, type '''terminal'''<br>and press '''ENTER'''
*Launch '''Terminal''' from the '''finder''' utility
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*In the terminal, enter the following command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-size:.75em;">ssh senecausername@matrix.senecacollege.ca</span>
*In the command line, enter the following command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-size:.75em;">ssh senecausername@matrix.senecacollege.ca</span>
 
*Enter your password when prompted.<br>Answer '''yes''' to any questions it may ask you.
 
 
     </td>
 
     </td>
     <td>
+
     <td>  
'''SSH from Linux:'''<br>  
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*From the menu, choose:<br>'''Applications''' > '''System Tools''' > '''Terminal'''
*From the menu, choose:<br>'''Applications''' > '''System Tools''' > '''Terminal'''.
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*In the terminal, enter the following command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-size:.75em;">ssh senecausername@matrix.senecacollege.ca</span>
*In the command line, enter the following command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-size:.75em;">ssh senecausername@matrix.senecacollege.ca</span>
 
*Enter your password when prompted.<br>Answer '''yes''' to any questions it may ask you.
 
 
     </td>
 
     </td>
 
   </tr>
 
   </tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
<ol><li value="4">When connecting securely for the '''first time''', a dialog box will appear to share a "'''public key'''" with your Matrix account in order to make your interaction between your workstation and the remote Linux server secure within the network (i.e. encrypted to prevent unauthorized access by other users)<br><br>''<b>FYI:</b> To make communications over a network secure, a computer generates '''two keys''': a '''private key''' that is kept on the computer, and a '''public key''', which can be shared with other computers. Transmissions from your computer uses the private key to encrypt ('''scramble''') transmission to the remote computer, which in turn, uses the public key to decrypt (unscramble) the transmission. Likewise, the remote computer uses the public key to encrypt (scramble) transmissions and your computer uses the private key to decrypt ('''unscramble''') those transmissions.''<br><br></li><li>Type '''yes''' and press '''ENTER''' to share your public key.<br><br>Next, a dialog box will appear prompting you for your Matrix account '''password''' in order to gain entry to your Matrix account. Your Matrix password is identical to your Seneca password. As you type the password, the text will be blocked-out or hidden to prevent others from viewing the screen to obtain your password<br><br></li><li>Enter your Seneca password and press '''ENTER'''<br><br></li>'''NOTE:''' If you encounter an '''error message''', this can occur for several reasons:<ol><li>You mis-spelled the '''name of the server'''</li><li>You mis-spelled your Matrix '''username''' (same username that you connect to ''my.senecacollege.ca'')</li><li>You have '''CAPS LOCK''' on by mistake (your username should be '''lowercase''' only).</li><li>You mis-spelled your '''password''' (same password that you connect to ''my.senecacollege.ca'')<br><br>If you continue to experience the same problems, click on the following link for IT service desk contact info: <br>[https://employees.senecacollege.ca/spaces/122/support/wiki/view/3524/contact-its '''IT service desk'''].<br><br></li></ol>
 +
<li>If you entered your password correctly, the '''Matrix Linux shell''' should appear where you can enter Linux commands.<br><br>The '''Matrix''' server has been configured to allow users to '''only interact with the Linux OS by issuing commands'''.<br>The main reason for this is to '''force students to learn how to issue Linux commands'''.<br><br></li><li>To exit your Matrix session, type the command <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">exit</span> followed by '''ENTER'''<br><br>'''NOTE:''' You should notice that you are returned to the original command prompt where you issued the ''ssh'' command.<br><br></li><li>Type the same command and the '''command terminal prompt''': <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">exit</span> followed by '''ENTER'''<br><br>
 +
'''NOTE:''' You should notice that the you are disconnected and that the original terminal window has '''automatically closed'''.<br><br></li><li>Try accessing your Matrix account, and then exiting your Matrix account several times to become familiar with this process.<br><br>You will now learn an alternative method to access your Matrix account (if you have an MS Windows machine)<br>by downloading and running a graphical SSH application.</li></ol><br>
  
<ol><li value="3">Although you may be comfortable using this method to connect to your Matrix Linux account,<br>it is '''HIGHLY RECOMMENDED''' to learn to run other SSH applications (e.g. graphical) for comparison purposes.<br><br></li></ol>
+
===CONNECTING TO YOUR MATRIX ACCOUNT FROM A GRAPHICAL WINDOWS APPLICATION===
  
===CONNECTING TO YOUR MATRIX ACCOUNT FROM GRAPHICAL APPLICATION===
+
You can also install and run a free '''MS Windows graphical SSH application''' in order to connect to your Matrix account.<br>You may find it useful when running a graphical SSH application to '''copy and paste text'''. There are several applications<br>that you can download and install, but we will be using the SSH Secure Shell Client application for this tutorial.<br><br>
 
 
You can also install and run a free '''graphical SSH application''' in order to connect to your Matrix account.<br>You may find it useful when running a graphical SSH application to '''copy and paste text'''.<br><br>
 
  
 
'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
 
'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
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# You should notice that the '''AppsAnywhere''' main application window appears.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' You may see a '''Validation in Process''' (or a '''validation successful''') message appear .<br>Although your applications are displayed, you <u>cannot</u> launch them until the validation process is successful.<br><br><table align="right"><tr valign="top"><td>[[Image:ma_validation.png|thumb|right|175px|Validation in Process Message in AppsAnywhere. ]]</td><td>[[Image:ma_system_tray.png|thumb|right|175px|Starting '''Cloudpaging''' Service in your '''System Tray'''. ]]</td><tr></table>You can tell if the system is still validating if an red exclamation mark <span style="color:red; font-weight:bold">!</span> appears in the application icon.<br><br>If the validation process is taking a long time, try opening the '''Cloudpaging''' service in the '''system tray''' located in the right side of the taskbar (you may need to click to display ALL services and then '''double-click''' the '''Cloudpaging''' application to launch).<br><br>
 
# You should notice that the '''AppsAnywhere''' main application window appears.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' You may see a '''Validation in Process''' (or a '''validation successful''') message appear .<br>Although your applications are displayed, you <u>cannot</u> launch them until the validation process is successful.<br><br><table align="right"><tr valign="top"><td>[[Image:ma_validation.png|thumb|right|175px|Validation in Process Message in AppsAnywhere. ]]</td><td>[[Image:ma_system_tray.png|thumb|right|175px|Starting '''Cloudpaging''' Service in your '''System Tray'''. ]]</td><tr></table>You can tell if the system is still validating if an red exclamation mark <span style="color:red; font-weight:bold">!</span> appears in the application icon.<br><br>If the validation process is taking a long time, try opening the '''Cloudpaging''' service in the '''system tray''' located in the right side of the taskbar (you may need to click to display ALL services and then '''double-click''' the '''Cloudpaging''' application to launch).<br><br>
 
# After your AppsAnywhere session has been validated, click on the '''Search Apps''' area located in the top right corner of the AppsAnywhere window and type the word: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ssh</span><br><br>[[Image:apps-anywhere.png|thumb|right|250px|Several SSH applications will appear. We will use the application called '''SSH Client''' for this practice tutorial. ]]
 
# After your AppsAnywhere session has been validated, click on the '''Search Apps''' area located in the top right corner of the AppsAnywhere window and type the word: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ssh</span><br><br>[[Image:apps-anywhere.png|thumb|right|250px|Several SSH applications will appear. We will use the application called '''SSH Client''' for this practice tutorial. ]]
# Several SSH applications will appear. <br><br>'''NOTE:''' All of these applications allow you to connect to your Matrix account.<br>We will use the application called '''SSH Secure Shell Client''' for this practice tutorial.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' If you encountere an error trying to launch the SSH application via AppsAnywhere,<br>click on the following link for IT service desk contact info: [https://inside.senecacollege.ca/its/service-catalogue/contacts.html '''IT service desk'''].<br><br>
+
# Several SSH applications will appear. <br><br>'''NOTE:''' All of these applications allow you to connect to your Matrix account.<br>We will use the application called '''SSH Secure Shell Client''' for this practice tutorial.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' If you encounter an error trying to launch the SSH application via AppsAnywhere,<br>click on the following link for IT service desk contact info: [https://employees.senecacollege.ca/spaces/122/support/wiki/view/3524/contact-its '''IT service desk'''].<br><br>
 
# Launch the '''SSH Secure Shell Client''' application icon to launch this program.<br><br>'''TIP:''' Prior to launching the application, you can add this to your '''favourites''' which will make it faster<br>to access this application in the future.<br><br><span style="color:blue">'''NOTE #1''': If you experience a problem launching any of your applications, you should note that there is a '''Cloudpaging Player''' application<br>that lists applications launched. If your application did '''NOT''' launch properly, '''right click''' on each listed application and select '''remove''' from the menu.<br>Then re-launch your application from the AppsAnywhere page (the IT service desk indicated that this can occasionally occur).<br><br>
 
# Launch the '''SSH Secure Shell Client''' application icon to launch this program.<br><br>'''TIP:''' Prior to launching the application, you can add this to your '''favourites''' which will make it faster<br>to access this application in the future.<br><br><span style="color:blue">'''NOTE #1''': If you experience a problem launching any of your applications, you should note that there is a '''Cloudpaging Player''' application<br>that lists applications launched. If your application did '''NOT''' launch properly, '''right click''' on each listed application and select '''remove''' from the menu.<br>Then re-launch your application from the AppsAnywhere page (the IT service desk indicated that this can occasionally occur).<br><br>
  
 
-->
 
-->
  
# '''Click''' the following '''link''' to download and install the free SSH Secure Shell application on your Windows computer:<br>http://www.sfsu.edu/ftp/win/ssh/SSHSecureShellClient-3.2.9.exe<br><br>Let's learn how to connect to and login to our Matrix account using this graphical SSH application.<br><br>[[Image:ssh-main-window.png|thumb|right|150px|SSH Client Application Window ]]
+
# '''Click''' the following '''link''' to download and install the free SSH Secure Shell application on your Windows computer:<br>http://www.sfsu.edu/ftp/win/ssh/SSHSecureShellClient-3.2.9.exe<br><br>'''NOTE:''' If you can't download or run this link, check to see if you computer allows downloads from this site.<br><br><table align="right"><tr valign="top"><td>[[Image:ssh-application-icon.png|thumb|right|75px|Double-click SSH icon on desktop to launch application]]</td><td>[[Image:ssh-main-window.png|thumb|right|150px|SSH Client Application Window ]]</td></table>
# After the application has been installed, it should appear as an application icon on your desktop.<br>'''Double click''' the '''SSH Secure Shell Client''' application icon.<br><br>
+
# After the application has been installed, an application icon should appear on your desktop.<br>'''Double click''' the '''SSH Secure Shell Client''' application icon to run this application.<br><br>The main SSH Client window will appear. Let's learn how to connect to and login to our Matrix account<br>using this graphical SSH application.<br><br>
# The main SSH Client window will appear. Click on the '''Quick Connect''' button.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' The Connect dialog box allows the user to specify the '''server name''' and your '''account name'''<br>to allow you to connect to the server.<br><br>[[Image:quick-connect-window.png|thumb|right|150px|Quick Connect Dialog Box ]]
+
# Click the '''Quick Connect''' button.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' The Connect dialog box allows the user to specify the '''server name''' and your '''account name'''<br>to allow you to connect to the server.<br><br>[[Image:quick-connect-window.png|thumb|right|150px|Quick Connect Dialog Box ]]
# Click on the textbox labelled Hostnanme and enter the text: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">matrix</span><br><br>'''NOTE:''' You can use the hostname '''matrix''' since you are located <u>inside</u> Seneca's network.<br>If you where located <u>outside</u> Seneca's network, then you would need to enter the full domain name: '''matrix.senecac.on.ca'''<br>You will be using the latter hostname since you will be connecting to your Matrix account remotely and not within the college.<br><br>[[Image:share-public-key.png|thumb|right|150px|Dialog Box to Share Public Key on Remote Server ]]
+
# Click on the textbox labelled '''Hostname''' and type the text: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">matrix.senecacollege.ca</span><br><br>'''NOTE:''' You can use the hostname '''matrix''' since you are located <u>'''inside'''</u> Seneca's network.<br>If you where located <u>outside</u> Seneca's network, then you would need to enter the full domain name: '''matrix.senecacollege.ca'''<br>You will be using the latter hostname since you will be connecting to your Matrix account remotely and not within the college.<br><br>[[Image:share-public-key.png|thumb|right|150px|Dialog Box to Share Public Key on Remote Server ]]
# When connecting securely for the '''first time''', a dialog box will appear to share a "public key" with your Matrix account in order to make your interaction between your workstation and the remote Linux server secure within the network (i.e. encrypted to prevent unauthorized access by other users)<br><br>'''FYI:''' To make communications over a network secure, a computer generates '''two keys''': a '''private key''' that is kept on the computer, and a '''public key''', which can be shared with other computers. Transmissions from your computer uses the private key to encrypt ('''scramble''') transmission to the remote computer, which in turn, uses the public key to decrypt (unscramble) the transmission. Likewise, the remote computer uses the public key to encrypt (scramble) transmissions and your computer uses the private key to decrypt ('''unscramble''') those transmissions.<br><br>[[Image:ssh-password-prompt.png|thumb|right|150px|Password Dialog Box ]]
+
# Click on the textbox labelled '''User Name''' and type your Seneca username (i.e. same as your Seneca userid.<br><br>
# Click the '''Yes''' button to share your public key.<br><br>
+
# Click the '''Connect''' button.<br><br>
# Next, a dialog box will appear prompting you for your Matrix account password in order to gain entry to your Matrix account. Your Matrix password is identical to your Seneca password. As you type the password, the text will be blocked-out or hidden to prevent others from viewing the screen to obtain your password[[Image:ssh-authentication-response.png|thumb|right|150px|Authentication Response Dialog Box ]]<br><br>
+
# When connecting securely for the '''first time''', a dialog box will appear to share a "public key" with your Matrix account in order to make your interaction between your workstation and the remote Linux server secure within the network<br>(i.e. encrypted to prevent unauthorized access by other users).<br><br>
# Enter your password and click '''OK''' or press '''ENTER'''<br><br>[[Image:ssh-login-error.png|thumb|right|150px|SSH Login Error ]]
+
# Click the '''Yes''' button to share your public key.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' In subsequent logins to your Matrix account, you may experience a welcome dialog box - simply click '''OK''' to proceed.<br><br>
# Click '''OK''' or press '''ENTER''' at the '''Authentication Response''' dialog box.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' If you encounter an '''error message''', this can occur for several reasons:<ol><li>You mis-spelled the '''name of the server'''</li><li>You mis-spelled your Matrix '''username''' (same username that you connect to my.senecacollege.ca)</li><li>You have '''CAPS LOCK''' on by mistake (your username should be '''lowercase''' only).</li><li>You mis-spelled your '''password''' (same password that you connect to my.senecacollege.ca)</li></ol><br>If you encountered an error logging in, issue the same steps to connect to your Matrix account,<br>but carefully check your server name, username and your password. If you continue to experience the same problems,<br>click on the following link for IT service desk contact info: [https://inside.senecacollege.ca/its/service-catalogue/contacts.html '''IT service desk'''].<br><br>[[Image:ssh-shell-window.png|thumb|right|150px|Matrix Shell Command Line Interface ]]
+
# Next, a dialog box will appear prompting you for your '''Matrix account password''' in order to gain entry to your Matrix account. Your Matrix password is identical to your Seneca password. As you type the password, the text will be blocked-out or hidden to prevent others from viewing the screen to obtain your password<br><br><table align="right"><tr valign="top"><td>[[Image:ssh-password-prompt.png|thumb|right|150px|Password Dialog Box ]]</td><td>[[Image:ssh-authentication-response.png|thumb|right|150px|Authentication Response Dialog Box ]]</td></table>
#If you entered your password correctly, the main SSH Linux shell should appear where you enter Linux commands.<br><br>The '''Matrix''' server has been configured to allow users to '''only interact with the Linux OS by issuing commands'''. There are various reasons for this, but the main 2 reasons are to '''force students to learn how to issue Linux commands''' as well as '''limitations to remote access to a graphical Linux server''' due to large number of users (students).<br><br>Later in the course, your instructor may demonstrate other ways of accessing '''graphical versions of Linux''', and how to launch a shell terminal.<br><br>
+
# '''Enter your password''' and click '''OK'''.<br><br>[[Image:ssh-login-error.png|thumb|right|150px|SSH Login Error ]]
 +
# Click '''OK''' at the '''Authentication Response''' dialog box.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' If you encounter an '''error message''', this can occur for several reasons:<ol><li>You mis-spelled the '''name of the server'''</li><li>You mis-spelled your Matrix '''username''' (same username that you connect to my.senecacollege.ca)</li><li>You have '''CAPS LOCK''' on by mistake (your username should be '''lowercase''' only).</li><li>You mis-spelled your '''password''' (same password that you connect to my.senecacollege.ca)</li></ol><br>If you continue to experience the same problems,<br>click on the following link for IT service desk contact info: [https://employees.senecacollege.ca/spaces/122/support/wiki/view/3524/contact-its '''IT service desk'''].<br><br>[[Image:ssh-shell-window.png|thumb|right|150px|Matrix Shell Command Line Interface ]]
 +
#If you followed the login steps correctly, the '''SSH Linux shell should appear''' where you enter Linux commands.<br><br>The '''Matrix''' server has been configured to allow users to '''only interact with the Linux OS by issuing commands'''. There are various reasons for this, but the main 2 reasons are to '''force students to learn how to issue Linux commands''' as well as '''limitations to remote access to a graphical Linux server''' due to large number of users (students).<br><br>
  
'''Configuring your Graphical SSH Application'''
+
'''Configuring your Graphical Windows SSH Application'''
  
You can '''configure''' the SSH application to adjust elements such as the '''window size''' and '''text font type''' and text '''font size'''. [[Image:ssh-settings-window.png|thumb|right|150px|SSH Settings Dialog Box ]]<br>We will now show you how to configure your SSH Secure Shell Client, but the other applications can allow you to configure their settings.
+
You can '''configure''' your Windows graphical SSH application to adjust elements such as<br>'''text font type''' and '''text  font size'''. [[Image:ssh-settings-window.png|thumb|right|150px|SSH Settings Dialog Box ]]<br><br>We will now show you how to configure just your '''SSH Secure Shell Client''' application,<br>(FYI: other SSH applications available in the '''Week 1 reference section''' also have the ability to configure settings).<br><br>
  
 
'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
 
'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
  
 
# Click on the '''Edit''' menu item, and then select '''Settings''' in the Edit drop-down menu.<br><br>
 
# Click on the '''Edit''' menu item, and then select '''Settings''' in the Edit drop-down menu.<br><br>
# To change the size of your shell window, under the ''Global Settings'' section, click '''Appearance'''<br><br>
 
# Change the ''window size'' both horizontal and vertical to larger values.<br><br>
 
 
# To change the font size, under the ''Global Settings'' section, click '''Font'''<br><br>
 
# To change the font size, under the ''Global Settings'' section, click '''Font'''<br><br>
 
# Select a larger ''font size'' and click '''OK'''<br><br>
 
# Select a larger ''font size'' and click '''OK'''<br><br>
 
# You now should notice that you have customized your SSH shell terminal. You can use the settings screen<br>to also change your background and text '''colours''' if you are interested in doing so.<br><br>
 
# You now should notice that you have customized your SSH shell terminal. You can use the settings screen<br>to also change your background and text '''colours''' if you are interested in doing so.<br><br>
# To exit your Matrix session, type the following command and press ENTER: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">exit</span><br><br>'''NOTE:''' You should notice that the colour of the text changes slightly when disconnected and you are unable to issue Linux commands from that window.<br><br>
+
# Try moving your mouse pointer to the bottom right-hand corner of the SSH application window,<br>then '''click and drag''' outwards to make the application window larger.<br><br>
# After you have disconnected from your account, close the SSH Secure Shell Client application window.<br><br>
+
# To exit your Matrix session, type the command <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">exit</span> followed by '''ENTER'''<br><br>'''NOTE:''' You should notice that the colour of the text changes slightly when disconnected<br>and you are unable to issue Linux commands from that window.<br><br>
# It is recommended to repeat these steps with connecting to your Matrix account from a Seneca lab workstation until you become comfortable with the process.<br><br>
+
# After you have disconnected from your account, '''close''' the SSH Secure Shell Client application window.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' You are '''STRONGLY ADVISED''' to use the '''exit''' command to properly terminate your Matrix session<br>'''<u>PRIOR</u>''' to closing the SSH or terminal application window!<br><br>In the next investigation, you will learn how to '''issue Linux commands''' and how to<br><u>setup</u> and <u>perform</u> the '''first two sections of the online ULI101 assignment #1'''.<br><br>
 
 
::In the next investigation, you will learn how to issue Linux commands and how to setup and perform the first two sections of the online ULI101 assignment #1.<br>
 
  
 
=INVESTIGATION 2: USING THE LINUX SHELL / ONLINE ASSIGNMENTS =
 
=INVESTIGATION 2: USING THE LINUX SHELL / ONLINE ASSIGNMENTS =
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In this section, you will learn how to use the Linux Shell. Topics in the section include:
 
In this section, you will learn how to use the Linux Shell. Topics in the section include:
  
:* Learn the '''Linux command structure''' (arguments and options)
+
:* Learn the basic '''Linux command structure''' (''arguments'' and ''options'')
:* Learn how to get '''help''' for Linux commands with manpages ('''man''' command).
+
:* Learn how to get '''help''' for Linux commands via the '''online manual''' (i.e. '''man''' command).
:* Learn '''Basic Shell Editing'''
+
:* Perform '''Basic Shell Editing'''
:* Learn how to perform '''online assignments'''.
+
:* Learn how to setup '''online assignment 1'''.
:* Perform the '''first two sections of online assignment #1'''.<br><br>
+
:* Perform the '''first section''' and '''3 parts of the second section''' of online assignment #1'''.<br><br>
  
 
===Part 1: Using the Linux Shell  ===
 
===Part 1: Using the Linux Shell  ===
Line 231: Line 233:
 
The Bash shell in Matrix allows you to interact with your Matrix account by issuing commands.
 
The Bash shell in Matrix allows you to interact with your Matrix account by issuing commands.
  
Some Linux commands can be issued by entering the Linux command line without arguments (e.g. '''pwd''', '''date''', '''ls''', '''cal'''),<br>but some Linux commands can be issued with arguments (e.g. '''cal 2002''', '''cd /bin''', '''ls -la''' ).<br><br>
+
'''The General Linux Command Structure is as follows:'''<br><span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">command argument1 argument2 ... </span>
  
'''Linux Command Structure'''
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Some Linux commands can be issued by entering the Linux command line without arguments (e.g. '''pwd''', '''date''', '''ls''', '''cal'''),<br>but many Linux commands can be issued with arguments (e.g. '''cal 2002''', '''cd /bin''', '''ls -l -a /bin''' ).<br><br>
 +
'''What Does an Argument Represent?'''
  
<span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">command argument1 argument2 ... </span>
+
An '''argument''' can respresent:
 +
:* a '''pathname'''
 +
:* a command '''option'''
 +
:* a series of characters (i.e. '''text''') that the command can use
  
An '''argument''' can be a '''pathname''', '''text''', '''option''', etc.
+
An '''argument''' is <u>separated</u> from a command (or from other arguments) by a '''SPACE''', '''MULTIPLE SPACES''' or a '''TAB'''.<br><br>
 
 
An '''argument''' is <u>separated</u> from a command (or from other arguments) by a '''SPACE''', '''multiple spaces''' or a '''TAB'''.
 
 
 
For example:
 
* The '''ls''' command displays a listing of filenames in the '''current''' directory
 
* The '''ls /bin'''  command displays a listing of filenames in the '''/bin''' directory (as opposed to your current directory)
 
* The '''ls -l'''  command displays a '''detailed''' listing of filenames in the '''current''' directory
 
* The '''ls -l /bin'''  command displays a '''detailed''' listing of files in the '''/bin''' directory
 
  
 +
'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
  
 +
# Make certain that you are logged into your Matrix account.<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">pwd</span><br><br>The output from this Linux command basically shows your '''current location''' in the Matrix server.<br>This represents a '''directory pathname''' to your home directory. We will discuss ''pathnames'' later in this course.<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ls</span><br><br>What do you notice?<br><br>If there were any files in your home directory, just their file names would be displayed.<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">cd /bin</span><br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command to confirm your current location: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">pwd</span><br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ls</span><br><br>What do you notice?<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command using an '''option''': <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ls -l</span><br><br>What do you notice?<br><br>The '''-l''' option with the '''ls''' command provides a '''detailed''' ("''long''") listing of files providing more information on a separate line for each file.<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command to return to your home directory: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">cd</span><br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command to confirm your current location: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">pwd</span><br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ls /bin</span><br><br>What do you notice? What makes this command with that argument useful if you are current located in your home directory?<br><br>
 +
# Issue a Linux command that you have already learned to confirm that you have returned to your home directory.<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">clear</span><br><br>What do you notice? How would this command be helpful?<br>'''FYI:''' The short-cut keys to clear the screen for the Bash shell is: <span style="font-family:courier;color:font-weight:bold">ctrl-l</span><br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">who</span><br><br>What information does this command show?<br><br>This command lists users that are logged into the same Matrix server as yourself.<br>'''NOTE:''' Remember that the Matrix Linux cluster contains several servers, so it does not display<br>all users that are logged onto those other machines within that cluster!<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">whoami</span><br><br>What does this command display? What do you think is the purpose of this command?<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">cal</span><br><br>What is the purpose of this command?<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">cal 2021</span><br><br>What is the purpose of this command using this argument?<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">cal 2 2021</span><br><br>What is the purpose of this command using those two '''numbers''' as arguments?<br><br>
 
'''Getting Help with Linux Commands'''
 
'''Getting Help with Linux Commands'''
  
With the Linux OS containing over '''2500''' commands and utilities, it is good for a Linux user or sysadmin to learn about how to use commands “on-the-fly”.
+
With the Linux OS containing over '''2500''' commands and utilities, it is good for a Linux user or sysadmin to learn about how to use commands “on-the-fly”.<br><br>
 +
The '''man''' command can provide information on how to use a command<br>(i.e. '''command usage''', '''acceptable command arguments''', '''command options''', '''examples''').<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">man man</span><br><br>You may notice that the online manual categories commands into sections or '''numbered volumes'''.<br><br>
 +
# Type the '''SPACE''' key to move to the next screen.<br><br>How many '''volume numbers''' are contained in the man pages (like '''executable commands''',<br>'''games''', or '''system administrator commands''')?<br><br>'''TIP:''' You can use the following '''short-cut keys''' within the man command to <br>help navigate throughout this utility to get help with the ls command (refer to table below):<br><br><table cellpadding="3"><tr><th style="border-bottom: 1px solid black;">Keyboard Shortcut</th><th style="border-bottom: 1px solid black;">Purpose</th></tr><tr><td>'''ENTER'''</td><td>Move down one line</td></tr><tr><td>'''SPACEBAR'''</td><td>Move one screen down</td></tr><tr><td>'''&lt;ctrl&gt;&lt;b&gt;'''</td><td>Move one screen up</td></tr><tr><td>'''/pattern/'''</td><td>Search for Pattern</td></tr><tr><td>'''q'''</td><td>quit man utility</td></tr></table><br>
 +
# Press the letter <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">q</span> to exit the man command.<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux command to get help with the ls command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">man ls</span><br><br>
 +
# Navigate through the man utility for the '''ls''' Linux command and note the '''option letters''' that correspond to the following descriptions:<br><ul><li>"'''use a long lising format'''"</li><li>"'''do not ignore entries starting with .'''" (i.e. hidden files)</li><li>"'''sort by file size'''"</li><li>"'''append indicator (one of */=>&|) to entries'''" (i.e. type of file)</li></ul><br>
 +
# Exit the man utility for the ''ls'' command.<br><br>
 +
# Issue the '''ls''' command for <u>each</u> of those option letters you noted in '''step 4''' to see how this command differs for each option.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' The '''man''' utility can be used with the '''-k''' option to help list Linux commands that match a text pattern<br>that is contained within the help screen for a Linux command.<br><br>
 +
# '''Pipeline commands''' can be used to filter-out unnecessary output. In the next command that you will be issuing,<br>the output from the '''man -k''' command, is sent into the '''grep''' command to ''filter'' (i.e. ''trap'') only output that matches the pattern "8"<br>(The number "8" refers to the category of type of command - in this case, administration commands).<br><br>We will learn more about pipeline commands later in this course.<br><br>
 +
# Issue the following Linux pipeline command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">man -k user | grep 8</span><br><br>How does this ''pipeline command'' make it easier to obtain information regarding man command?<br><br>
 +
# If you wish to change your password, you can change it by issuing the command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">passwd</span><br>What option for the passwd command can be used to change user info (such as name)?<br>'''Hint:''' use the '''man''' command for '''passwd'''.<br><br>
 +
# Press the letter <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">q</span> to exit the man command.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' Do '''NOT''' run the ''passwd'' command. Unique for this college, your Matrix password is changed automatically when you change your '''myseneca''' password.<br><br>You will now learn how to perform '''command line editing''' to correct syntax errors while typing Linux commands PRIOR to pressing the ENTER key.<br><br>
  
The '''man''' command can provide information on how to use a command (i.e. '''usage''', '''arguments''', '''options''', '''examples''').<br>The commands are classified into sections or '''volumes'''.
+
'''Command Line Editing'''
 +
[[Image:command-line-editing.png|thumb|right|520px|Command Line Editing Shortcut Keys. ]]
  
'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
 
  
# Make certain that you are logged into your Matrix account.<br><br>
+
Learning '''shortcut keys''' in any OS terminal will allow you to be more productive as a ''Linux user'' or ''Linux System Administrator'' (commonly referred to as: '''Linux sysadmin''').<br><br><br>Let's learn a few common Bash Shell keyboard shortcut keys and find out where you can access online help for additional shortcuts (if required).
# Issue the following command: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">man man</span><br>How many volume numbers are contained in the man pages (like '''executable commands/programs''', '''games''', or '''system administrator commands''')?<br><br>
 
# Press the letter <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">q</span> to exit the man command.<br><br>
 
# Issue the Linux command to get help with the command: '''ls'''<br><br>'''NOTE:''' You can use the following short-cut keys within the man command to <br>help navigate throughout this utility to get help with the ls command (refer to table below):<br><br><table cellpadding="3"><tr><th style="border-bottom: 1px solid black;">Keyboard Shortcut</th><th style="border-bottom: 1px solid black;">Purpose</th></tr><tr><td>'''ENTER'''</td><td>Move down one line</td></tr><tr><td>'''SPACEBAR'''</td><td>Move one screen down</td></tr><tr><td>'''&lt;ctrl&gt;&lt;f&gt;'''</td><td>Move one screen up</td></tr><tr><td>'''/pattern/'''</td><td>Search for Pattern</td></tr><tr><td>'''q'''</td><td>quit man utility</td></tr></table><br>
 
# Navigate through the man utility for the '''ls''' Linux command and note the option letters that correspond to the following:<br><ul><li>Include directory entries whose names begin with a '''period'''</li><li>List in long ('''detailed''') format</li><li>'''Recursively''' list subdirectories encountered</li><li>'''Sort''' files by size</li><li>Display a '''forward slash''' (`/') immediately after each pathname that is a directory</li></ul><br>
 
# Exit the man utility for the ls command.<br><br>
 
# Issue the ls command for each of those option letters you wrote down to see how this command differs for each option.<br><br>NOTE: The '''man''' utility can be used with the '''-k''' option to help list Linux commands that match a text pattern that is contained within the help screen for a Linux command.<br><br>
 
# Although we will not be learning about pipeline commands (using the | character) until later, try issuing the following pipeline command: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">man -k copy | grep 8</span><br>How this this pipeline command make it easier to obtain information regarding man command?<br><br>
 
# If you wish to change your password, you can change it by issuing the command: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">passwd</span><br>What option for the passwd command can be used to change user info (such as name)?<br>'''Hint:''' use the '''man''' command for '''passwd'''.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' You are NOT required to change your Matrix password for this tutorial. The Matrix server is "synched" with the my.senecacollege.ca server, so it is better to have your Matrix password changed at the same time that you change your '''myseneca''' password.<br><br>
 
  
'''Command Line Editing'''
 
  
Learning '''shortcut keys''' in any OS terminal will allow you to be more productive as a sysadmin. You will focus on learning a few common Bash Shell keyboard shortcut keys
 
and learn where you can access online help for additional shortcuts (if required).
 
  
 
'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
 
'''Perform the Following Steps:'''
 
+
[[Image:meta-key.png|thumb|right|370px|To make '''alt-f''' key work, select '''Edit''' -> '''Settings''' -> '''Keyboard''', and select the checkbox '''Use ALT as Meta key (and Escape)'''.]]
# Type the following Linux command, but DON’T press the ENTER key:   <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">cd /bin</span><br><br>
+
# Type the following Linux command, but DON’T press the ''ENTER'' key:<br><span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">cd /bin</span><br><br>
# Press the <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-a</span> key combination. What happens?<br><br>
+
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-a</span> key combination. What happens?<br><br>'''NOTE:''' To make '''alt-f''' key work when use the '''GRAPHICAL Windows SSH Client application''', select '''Edit''' -> '''Settings''' -> '''Keyboard''', and select the checkbox '''Use ALT as Meta key (and Escape)'''.<br><br>
# Press the <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">alt-F</span> key combination (OPTION+right-arrow for Mac OSx). What happens?<br><br>
+
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">alt-f</span> key combination '''two times'''<br>(OPTION+right-arrow for Mac OSx).<br><br>
# Press the <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-w</span> shortcut. What happens?<br><br>
+
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">alt-b</span> key combination '''one time'''.<br>(OPTION+left-arrow for Mac OSx).<br><br><table align="right"><tr valign="top"><td>[[Image:ctrl-b.png|thumb|right|150px|'''alt-b''' moves one word backwards for Windows OS]]</td><td>[[Image:ctrl-w.png|thumb|right|150px|'''ctrl-w''' deletes a word to <u>left</u> of the cursor.]]</td><td>[[Image:new-ls.png|thumb|right|150px|After command is deleted, then type new command and press '''ctrl-e''' to move to end of the command line.]]</td></tr></table>
# Type the following command: <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ls</span><br><br>
+
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-w</span> shortcut key. What happens?<br><br>
# Press the <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-e</span> key combination and press <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ENTER</span><br><br>
+
# Type the following command: <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ls</span><br><br>
# Press the up arrow key. What happens?<br><br>
+
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-e</span> key combination<br><br>What happens?<br><br>
# Press the <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-u</span> key combination. What happens?<br><br>
+
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ENTER</span> key to execute the command.<br><br>
# Press the <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">up arrow</span> key combination, and see what happens when you press <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">BACKSPACE</span> , <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">&lt;ctrl&gt;&lt;BACKSPACE&gt;</span> and <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">&lt;ctrl&gt;&lt;h&gt;</span>. Why is it important to know those series of key combinations?<br><br>
+
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">up arrow</span> key. What happens?<br><br>
# Press the <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-u</span> key combination to clear the line.<br><br>
+
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-u</span> key combination. What happens?<br><br>
# Press the <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-l</span> key combination. What happens? What is the advantage of using this key combination then issuing the '''clear''' command?<br><br>
+
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">up arrow</span> key combination, and see what happens when you press <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">BACKSPACE</span> , <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">&lt;ctrl&gt;&lt;BACKSPACE&gt;</span> and <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">&lt;ctrl&gt;&lt;h&gt;</span>.<br>Why is it important to know those series of key combinations?<br><br>
 +
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-u</span> key combination to clear the line.<br><br>
 +
# Press the <span style="font-family:courier;color:blue;font-weight:bold">ctrl-l</span> key combination. What happens? What is the advantage of using '''ctrl-u''' as opposed to '''ctrl-l'''?<br><br>
 +
:The Bash shortcut keys that you just learned are sufficient to perform Bash Shell editing.<br>Although you are NOT required to learn other short-cut keys, here is a link to a listing in case you are interested:<br>https://ostechnix.com/list-useful-bash-keyboard-shortcuts/
 +
<br>
  
 
===Part 2: Performing Online Assignments ===
 
===Part 2: Performing Online Assignments ===
  
You are required to perform '''3 online assignments''' during this course. This online assignment is used to teach and reinforce Linux commands are techniques as well as using Linux commands to perform tasks and tests students on their knowledge of issuing Linux commands.
+
You are required to perform '''3 online assignments''' throughout this course. This online assignment is used to teach and reinforce<br>Linux commands to gain experience for quizzes, midterm and final exams.
  
In this section, you will learn to '''select the correct section''' for your online assignments, how to perform the '''first two sections''' of assignment #1, how to '''verify''' that you successfully completed both sections, and how to '''exit''' your online assignment #1.
+
In this section, you will learn to:
 +
* '''Select the correct section''' for assignment submission
 +
* Perform the '''first section''' and '''3 parts of the second section''' of assignment #1
 +
* '''Verify''' that you successfully completed both sections
 +
* '''Exit''' your online assignment #1.
  
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
'''Perform the following steps:'''
 
'''Perform the following steps:'''
 
[[Image:Assn-initial-window3.png|thumb|right|250px|Initial Assignment Window to Allow Student to Select Correct Course Section. ]]
 
[[Image:Assn-initial-window3.png|thumb|right|250px|Initial Assignment Window to Allow Student to Select Correct Course Section. ]]
# In your Matrix account, issue the following command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier">~uli101/assign1</span><br><br>
+
# In your Matrix account, issue the following command:<br><span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold;font-family:courier">~uli101/a1</span><br><br>
 +
# Press '''ENTER''' at the "Notes" screen.<br><br>
 
# A screen similar to the one displayed on the right will appear.<br><br><span style="color:red;">'''WARNING''': You need to select the <u>CORRECT</u> section for the course which you belong to.<br>If you do <u>NOT</u> select your correct section, your assignment may not be recorded for marks!</span><br><br>
 
# A screen similar to the one displayed on the right will appear.<br><br><span style="color:red;">'''WARNING''': You need to select the <u>CORRECT</u> section for the course which you belong to.<br>If you do <u>NOT</u> select your correct section, your assignment may not be recorded for marks!</span><br><br>
# Select the '''letter(s)''' corresponding to the <u>correct</u> '''ULI101 section''' and '''professor''' and press <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ENTER</span><br><br>
+
# Select the '''3 letter code''' corresponding to the <u>correct</u> '''ULI101 <u>section</u>''' and '''professor''' and press <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ENTER</span><br><br>
 
# After you have selected your course section, There will be a screen that provides several important notes before proceeding.<br>Please take a few moments to read those notes and press <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ENTER</span> to proceed.<br><br>[[Image:assn-section-completion.png|thumb|right|250px|Main Assignment Window to View Which Sections Need to be Completed. ]]
 
# After you have selected your course section, There will be a screen that provides several important notes before proceeding.<br>Please take a few moments to read those notes and press <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ENTER</span> to proceed.<br><br>[[Image:assn-section-completion.png|thumb|right|250px|Main Assignment Window to View Which Sections Need to be Completed. ]]
 
# The assignment main menu will then be displayed.<br><br>'''NOTES:'''<ul><li>Near the bottom of the window, you will see '''"You are currently registered to"''' followed by the '''section letter''' and '''instructor name'''. Double-check your course timetable to confirm that this the correct section letter. If you have selected the WRONG section, type  <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">C</span> in the menu selection area and press <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ENTER</span>. You will return back to the original window to select your correct course section.<br><br></li><li>Near the top of the window displays the sections to complete in the assignment. You are NOT required to complete all sections at the same time. You can check the assignment #1 link on the ULI101 main WIKI page to note the due date for assignment #1. Sections that are NOT completed will be displayed in '''reverse text with a blue background'''. On the other hand, when you compete a section, then the section will appear as regular text<br>(i.e not in reverse text).<br><br>[[Image:assn-completed-window.png|thumb|right|250px|Main Assignment Window to Confirm Which Sections Have or Have Not Been Completed. ]]</li><li>If you want to verify that you have completed sections for the assignment, look for the text '''"Marks earned so far for ULI101 Assignment:"''' and it will show how many sections have been completed. When it shows all sections completed, then your assignment is finished and you should receive full marks provided that you have selected your correct course section.<br><br></li></ul>
 
# The assignment main menu will then be displayed.<br><br>'''NOTES:'''<ul><li>Near the bottom of the window, you will see '''"You are currently registered to"''' followed by the '''section letter''' and '''instructor name'''. Double-check your course timetable to confirm that this the correct section letter. If you have selected the WRONG section, type  <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">C</span> in the menu selection area and press <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">ENTER</span>. You will return back to the original window to select your correct course section.<br><br></li><li>Near the top of the window displays the sections to complete in the assignment. You are NOT required to complete all sections at the same time. You can check the assignment #1 link on the ULI101 main WIKI page to note the due date for assignment #1. Sections that are NOT completed will be displayed in '''reverse text with a blue background'''. On the other hand, when you compete a section, then the section will appear as regular text<br>(i.e not in reverse text).<br><br>[[Image:assn-completed-window.png|thumb|right|250px|Main Assignment Window to Confirm Which Sections Have or Have Not Been Completed. ]]</li><li>If you want to verify that you have completed sections for the assignment, look for the text '''"Marks earned so far for ULI101 Assignment:"''' and it will show how many sections have been completed. When it shows all sections completed, then your assignment is finished and you should receive full marks provided that you have selected your correct course section.<br><br></li></ul>
Line 303: Line 329:
 
# When you have time this week, enter <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">2</span> in the menu selection area and perform the first 3 parts only<br>('''Unix Command Structure''', '''Entering and Editing Commands''', '''Using the Online Manual''').<br><br>
 
# When you have time this week, enter <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">2</span> in the menu selection area and perform the first 3 parts only<br>('''Unix Command Structure''', '''Entering and Editing Commands''', '''Using the Online Manual''').<br><br>
 
# When you have completed this section, you will be returned to the main window.<br>View the contents of this window to confirm that you completed this section.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' Although you are NOT allowed to use reference sheets for course evaluations, it is recommended to create one for your personal use, and write down Linux commands, their arguments and options, so your can successfully perform quizzes, midterm exam, and final exam.<br><br>
 
# When you have completed this section, you will be returned to the main window.<br>View the contents of this window to confirm that you completed this section.<br><br>'''NOTE:''' Although you are NOT allowed to use reference sheets for course evaluations, it is recommended to create one for your personal use, and write down Linux commands, their arguments and options, so your can successfully perform quizzes, midterm exam, and final exam.<br><br>
# Proceed to the next section to perform additional practice. Linux is about "doing"! The more practice questions you perform, the better mark you will achieve for this course and have a better foundation of issuing Linux commands to be more productive in your future courses.<br><br>
+
# In order to exit the assignment #1 screen, enter <span style="color:blue;font-weight:bold">q</span><br><br>
 +
# Run the command to restart your assignment #1 and go to the main menu.<br>What do you notice?<br><br>If you successfully completed the first two sections, they no longer appear in reverse video.<br>This indicates that you have completed the first two sections of this assignment.<br><br>
 +
# Exit your Assignment 1, and exit your Matrix session.<br><br>
 +
# Proceed to the next section to perform additional practice. Linux is about "doing"! The more practice questions you perform,<br>the better mark you will achieve for this course and have a better foundation of issuing Linux commands to be more productive in your future courses.<br><br>
  
 
= LINUX PRACTICE QUESTIONS =
 
= LINUX PRACTICE QUESTIONS =

Latest revision as of 14:29, 15 January 2021

USING YOUR MATRIX SERVER ACCOUNT


Main Objectives of this Practice Tutorial

  • Learn how to access your Matrix server account from a remote computer.
  • Learn several ways to exit your Matrix Linux Account session.
  • Understand the Linux command structure and how to get help with Linux command usage.
  • Become efficient with Linux command line editing by using short-cut keys.
  • Perform the first section and half of the second section of online assignment #1.
  • Perform LINUX PRACTICE QUESTIONS for additional practice

Tutorial Reference Material

Course Notes / Software
Linux Command/Shortcut Reference
YouTube Videos
Slides:Tutorials:Windows SSH client Software: Matrix Account Access

Command Line Editing

General Linux Commands


Brauer Instructional Videos:

KEY CONCEPTS

Purpose of Having a Matrix Linux Server Account

While attending Seneca College, you will be using many different computer systems. Some of these servers include:

my.senecacollege.ca Learning Content Management System (Link to Resources / Student Grades / Online Quizzes)
ict.senecacollege.ca Course website for same material as ULI101 WIKI (see below)
wiki.cdot.senecacollege.ca Student Notes / Tutorials / Practice Questions / Resources
matrix.senecacollege.ca Linux Account for "hands-on Practice" and Assignment submission


A shell is an interface / interpreter to allow a user to communicate with the Linux computer system.

Although you need to study concepts (slides) throughout this course, you will also need to get hands-on practice running Linux commands as well as performing online tutorials and performing and submitting online course assignments.
This requires that you connect to a Linux server and become comfortable with issuing Linux commands.

In Unix/Linux, a shell is simply an interface to allow a user to communicate with the Linux computer system (server). Linux shells have evolved (improved) over a period of time. You will be using the Bash Shell which is considered to be user-friendly. By understanding how to issue Linux commands, you can create a file that contains Linux commands (called a shell script) later in this course to automate tasks to make you a more productive Linux user and system administrator.

Layout of the Matrix Linux Server

The Matrix server consists of several Computers connected together to form a cluster. A Linux Cluster is a cost effective alternative to larger servers.

The Matrix server consists of several computers connected together to form a cluster.
A Linux cluster is a cost effective alternative to buying larger servers.

All registered students in this course should have an account on the Matrix server.
You will be using this account for the following reasons:

  • Issuing Linux commands
  • Becoming productive using the Linux command prompt (shell)
  • Performing Linux Practice Tutorials
  • Performing Linux Practice Questions
  • Performing Online Linux Assignments (3)

Connecting to the Seneca Global Portal

Seneca Global Portal

Seneca College is "rolling-out" additional measures to improve network security. One of these measures
is to implement multi-factored authentication. As of September 2020, all Seneca College students are required
to connect to the Seneca Global Portal in order to be able to connect to their Matrix Linux account.

Multi-factor authentication is an electronic authentication method in which a computer user is granted access to a website or application only after successfully presenting two or more pieces of evidence (or factors) to an authentication mechanism: knowledge (something the user and only the user knows). Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-factor_authentication

You should have received an email message (also available in course announcements) regarding how to setup your Smart Phone to connect and valid via the Seneca Global Portal. NOTE: If you haven't done this yet, please perform the steps provided in the following link:
https://employees.senecacollege.ca/spaces/77/it-services/wiki/view/3722/student-vpn

In the next investigation, you will learn how to connect to and login to your Matrix server account from a remote computer
such as your home desktop computer, laptop or tablet computer.

Connecting to Your Matrix Account

Cli-prompt.png

After connecting to the Seneca Global Portal, you can open a command terminal
in your Newer Windows 10, Mac or Linux computer and issue the following command:

ssh senecauserid@matrix.senecacollege.ca

Ssh-application-icon.png

You can also click on the following link to download and install a graphical SSH application for your Windows machine:
http://www.sfsu.edu/ftp/win/ssh/SSHSecureShellClient-3.2.9.exe

INVESTIGATION 1: ACCESSING YOUR MATRIX LINUX ACCOUNT

In this investigation, you will learn how to connect and login to your Matrix account by issuing a command from your computer's text-based terminal
and/or by downloading, installing a running a graphical Windows SSH graphical application.

CONNECTING TO YOUR MATRIX ACCOUNT FROM A COMMAND LINE TERMINAL

The Global Portal service must be connected.

You will now learn a quick and simple method of connecting to your Matrix account by opening
a text-based terminal (in any OS) and issuing the ssh command.

Perform the Following Steps:

  1. Before proceeding, make certain that your Seneca Global Portal is connected.

    If you haven't set this up, refer to the following link for instructions;
    https://employees.senecacollege.ca/spaces/77/it-services/wiki/view/3722/student-vpn

    NOTE: You only have to connect to your Seneca Global Portal once during the day, or while you are logged into your computer.

  2. Determine which operating system that your computer is using.

  3. Try connecting to your Matrix account using the instructions in the table below based on your current operating system.

Newer Version of Windows 10: MacOSX: Linux:
  • From the start menu, type cmd and launch program
  • In the command terminal, enter the following command:
    ssh senecausername@matrix.senecacollege.ca
  • Click Launchpad icon, type terminal
    and press ENTER
  • In the terminal, enter the following command:
    ssh senecausername@matrix.senecacollege.ca
  • From the menu, choose:
    Applications > System Tools > Terminal
  • In the terminal, enter the following command:
    ssh senecausername@matrix.senecacollege.ca
  1. When connecting securely for the first time, a dialog box will appear to share a "public key" with your Matrix account in order to make your interaction between your workstation and the remote Linux server secure within the network (i.e. encrypted to prevent unauthorized access by other users)

    FYI: To make communications over a network secure, a computer generates two keys: a private key that is kept on the computer, and a public key, which can be shared with other computers. Transmissions from your computer uses the private key to encrypt (scramble) transmission to the remote computer, which in turn, uses the public key to decrypt (unscramble) the transmission. Likewise, the remote computer uses the public key to encrypt (scramble) transmissions and your computer uses the private key to decrypt (unscramble) those transmissions.

  2. Type yes and press ENTER to share your public key.

    Next, a dialog box will appear prompting you for your Matrix account password in order to gain entry to your Matrix account. Your Matrix password is identical to your Seneca password. As you type the password, the text will be blocked-out or hidden to prevent others from viewing the screen to obtain your password

  3. Enter your Seneca password and press ENTER

  4. NOTE: If you encounter an error message, this can occur for several reasons:
    1. You mis-spelled the name of the server
    2. You mis-spelled your Matrix username (same username that you connect to my.senecacollege.ca)
    3. You have CAPS LOCK on by mistake (your username should be lowercase only).
    4. You mis-spelled your password (same password that you connect to my.senecacollege.ca)

      If you continue to experience the same problems, click on the following link for IT service desk contact info:
      IT service desk.

  5. If you entered your password correctly, the Matrix Linux shell should appear where you can enter Linux commands.

    The Matrix server has been configured to allow users to only interact with the Linux OS by issuing commands.
    The main reason for this is to force students to learn how to issue Linux commands.

  6. To exit your Matrix session, type the command exit followed by ENTER

    NOTE: You should notice that you are returned to the original command prompt where you issued the ssh command.

  7. Type the same command and the command terminal prompt: exit followed by ENTER

    NOTE: You should notice that the you are disconnected and that the original terminal window has automatically closed.

  8. Try accessing your Matrix account, and then exiting your Matrix account several times to become familiar with this process.

    You will now learn an alternative method to access your Matrix account (if you have an MS Windows machine)
    by downloading and running a graphical SSH application.

CONNECTING TO YOUR MATRIX ACCOUNT FROM A GRAPHICAL WINDOWS APPLICATION

You can also install and run a free MS Windows graphical SSH application in order to connect to your Matrix account.
You may find it useful when running a graphical SSH application to copy and paste text. There are several applications
that you can download and install, but we will be using the SSH Secure Shell Client application for this tutorial.

Perform the Following Steps:

  1. Click the following link to download and install the free SSH Secure Shell application on your Windows computer:
    http://www.sfsu.edu/ftp/win/ssh/SSHSecureShellClient-3.2.9.exe

    NOTE: If you can't download or run this link, check to see if you computer allows downloads from this site.

    Double-click SSH icon on desktop to launch application
    SSH Client Application Window
  2. After the application has been installed, an application icon should appear on your desktop.
    Double click the SSH Secure Shell Client application icon to run this application.

    The main SSH Client window will appear. Let's learn how to connect to and login to our Matrix account
    using this graphical SSH application.

  3. Click the Quick Connect button.

    NOTE: The Connect dialog box allows the user to specify the server name and your account name
    to allow you to connect to the server.

    Quick Connect Dialog Box
  4. Click on the textbox labelled Hostname and type the text: matrix.senecacollege.ca

    NOTE: You can use the hostname matrix since you are located inside Seneca's network.
    If you where located outside Seneca's network, then you would need to enter the full domain name: matrix.senecacollege.ca
    You will be using the latter hostname since you will be connecting to your Matrix account remotely and not within the college.

    Dialog Box to Share Public Key on Remote Server
  5. Click on the textbox labelled User Name and type your Seneca username (i.e. same as your Seneca userid.

  6. Click the Connect button.

  7. When connecting securely for the first time, a dialog box will appear to share a "public key" with your Matrix account in order to make your interaction between your workstation and the remote Linux server secure within the network
    (i.e. encrypted to prevent unauthorized access by other users).

  8. Click the Yes button to share your public key.

    NOTE: In subsequent logins to your Matrix account, you may experience a welcome dialog box - simply click OK to proceed.

  9. Next, a dialog box will appear prompting you for your Matrix account password in order to gain entry to your Matrix account. Your Matrix password is identical to your Seneca password. As you type the password, the text will be blocked-out or hidden to prevent others from viewing the screen to obtain your password

    Password Dialog Box
    Authentication Response Dialog Box
  10. Enter your password and click OK.

    SSH Login Error
  11. Click OK at the Authentication Response dialog box.

    NOTE: If you encounter an error message, this can occur for several reasons:
    1. You mis-spelled the name of the server
    2. You mis-spelled your Matrix username (same username that you connect to my.senecacollege.ca)
    3. You have CAPS LOCK on by mistake (your username should be lowercase only).
    4. You mis-spelled your password (same password that you connect to my.senecacollege.ca)

    If you continue to experience the same problems,
    click on the following link for IT service desk contact info: IT service desk.

    Matrix Shell Command Line Interface
  12. If you followed the login steps correctly, the SSH Linux shell should appear where you enter Linux commands.

    The Matrix server has been configured to allow users to only interact with the Linux OS by issuing commands. There are various reasons for this, but the main 2 reasons are to force students to learn how to issue Linux commands as well as limitations to remote access to a graphical Linux server due to large number of users (students).

Configuring your Graphical Windows SSH Application

You can configure your Windows graphical SSH application to adjust elements such as
text font type and text font size.
SSH Settings Dialog Box


We will now show you how to configure just your SSH Secure Shell Client application,
(FYI: other SSH applications available in the Week 1 reference section also have the ability to configure settings).

Perform the Following Steps:

  1. Click on the Edit menu item, and then select Settings in the Edit drop-down menu.

  2. To change the font size, under the Global Settings section, click Font

  3. Select a larger font size and click OK

  4. You now should notice that you have customized your SSH shell terminal. You can use the settings screen
    to also change your background and text colours if you are interested in doing so.

  5. Try moving your mouse pointer to the bottom right-hand corner of the SSH application window,
    then click and drag outwards to make the application window larger.

  6. To exit your Matrix session, type the command exit followed by ENTER

    NOTE: You should notice that the colour of the text changes slightly when disconnected
    and you are unable to issue Linux commands from that window.

  7. After you have disconnected from your account, close the SSH Secure Shell Client application window.

    NOTE: You are STRONGLY ADVISED to use the exit command to properly terminate your Matrix session
    PRIOR to closing the SSH or terminal application window!

    In the next investigation, you will learn how to issue Linux commands and how to
    setup and perform the first two sections of the online ULI101 assignment #1.

INVESTIGATION 2: USING THE LINUX SHELL / ONLINE ASSIGNMENTS


In this section, you will learn how to use the Linux Shell. Topics in the section include:

  • Learn the basic Linux command structure (arguments and options)
  • Learn how to get help for Linux commands via the online manual (i.e. man command).
  • Perform Basic Shell Editing
  • Learn how to setup online assignment 1.
  • Perform the first section and 3 parts of the second section of online assignment #1.

Part 1: Using the Linux Shell

The Bash shell in Matrix allows you to interact with your Matrix account by issuing commands.

The General Linux Command Structure is as follows:
command argument1 argument2 ...

Some Linux commands can be issued by entering the Linux command line without arguments (e.g. pwd, date, ls, cal),
but many Linux commands can be issued with arguments (e.g. cal 2002, cd /bin, ls -l -a /bin ).

What Does an Argument Represent?

An argument can respresent:

  • a pathname
  • a command option
  • a series of characters (i.e. text) that the command can use

An argument is separated from a command (or from other arguments) by a SPACE, MULTIPLE SPACES or a TAB.

Perform the Following Steps:

  1. Make certain that you are logged into your Matrix account.

  2. Issue the following Linux command: pwd

    The output from this Linux command basically shows your current location in the Matrix server.
    This represents a directory pathname to your home directory. We will discuss pathnames later in this course.

  3. Issue the following Linux command: ls

    What do you notice?

    If there were any files in your home directory, just their file names would be displayed.

  4. Issue the following Linux command: cd /bin

  5. Issue the following Linux command to confirm your current location: pwd

  6. Issue the following Linux command: ls

    What do you notice?

  7. Issue the following Linux command using an option: ls -l

    What do you notice?

    The -l option with the ls command provides a detailed ("long") listing of files providing more information on a separate line for each file.

  8. Issue the following Linux command to return to your home directory: cd

  9. Issue the following Linux command to confirm your current location: pwd

  10. Issue the following Linux command: ls /bin

    What do you notice? What makes this command with that argument useful if you are current located in your home directory?

  11. Issue a Linux command that you have already learned to confirm that you have returned to your home directory.

  12. Issue the following Linux command: clear

    What do you notice? How would this command be helpful?
    FYI: The short-cut keys to clear the screen for the Bash shell is: ctrl-l

  13. Issue the following Linux command: who

    What information does this command show?

    This command lists users that are logged into the same Matrix server as yourself.
    NOTE: Remember that the Matrix Linux cluster contains several servers, so it does not display
    all users that are logged onto those other machines within that cluster!

  14. Issue the following Linux command: whoami

    What does this command display? What do you think is the purpose of this command?

  15. Issue the following Linux command: cal

    What is the purpose of this command?

  16. Issue the following Linux command: cal 2021

    What is the purpose of this command using this argument?

  17. Issue the following Linux command: cal 2 2021

    What is the purpose of this command using those two numbers as arguments?

Getting Help with Linux Commands

With the Linux OS containing over 2500 commands and utilities, it is good for a Linux user or sysadmin to learn about how to use commands “on-the-fly”.

The man command can provide information on how to use a command
(i.e. command usage, acceptable command arguments, command options, examples).

  1. Issue the following command: man man

    You may notice that the online manual categories commands into sections or numbered volumes.

  2. Type the SPACE key to move to the next screen.

    How many volume numbers are contained in the man pages (like executable commands,
    games, or system administrator commands)?

    TIP: You can use the following short-cut keys within the man command to
    help navigate throughout this utility to get help with the ls command (refer to table below):

    Keyboard ShortcutPurpose
    ENTERMove down one line
    SPACEBARMove one screen down
    <ctrl><b>Move one screen up
    /pattern/Search for Pattern
    qquit man utility

  3. Press the letter q to exit the man command.

  4. Issue the following Linux command to get help with the ls command: man ls

  5. Navigate through the man utility for the ls Linux command and note the option letters that correspond to the following descriptions:
    • "use a long lising format"
    • "do not ignore entries starting with ." (i.e. hidden files)
    • "sort by file size"
    • "append indicator (one of */=>&|) to entries" (i.e. type of file)

  6. Exit the man utility for the ls command.

  7. Issue the ls command for each of those option letters you noted in step 4 to see how this command differs for each option.

    NOTE: The man utility can be used with the -k option to help list Linux commands that match a text pattern
    that is contained within the help screen for a Linux command.

  8. Pipeline commands can be used to filter-out unnecessary output. In the next command that you will be issuing,
    the output from the man -k command, is sent into the grep command to filter (i.e. trap) only output that matches the pattern "8"
    (The number "8" refers to the category of type of command - in this case, administration commands).

    We will learn more about pipeline commands later in this course.

  9. Issue the following Linux pipeline command: man -k user | grep 8

    How does this pipeline command make it easier to obtain information regarding man command?

  10. If you wish to change your password, you can change it by issuing the command: passwd
    What option for the passwd command can be used to change user info (such as name)?
    Hint: use the man command for passwd.

  11. Press the letter q to exit the man command.

    NOTE: Do NOT run the passwd command. Unique for this college, your Matrix password is changed automatically when you change your myseneca password.

    You will now learn how to perform command line editing to correct syntax errors while typing Linux commands PRIOR to pressing the ENTER key.

Command Line Editing

Command Line Editing Shortcut Keys.


Learning shortcut keys in any OS terminal will allow you to be more productive as a Linux user or Linux System Administrator (commonly referred to as: Linux sysadmin).


Let's learn a few common Bash Shell keyboard shortcut keys and find out where you can access online help for additional shortcuts (if required).


Perform the Following Steps:

To make alt-f key work, select Edit -> Settings -> Keyboard, and select the checkbox Use ALT as Meta key (and Escape).
  1. Type the following Linux command, but DON’T press the ENTER key:
    cd /bin

  2. Press the ctrl-a key combination. What happens?

    NOTE: To make alt-f key work when use the GRAPHICAL Windows SSH Client application, select Edit -> Settings -> Keyboard, and select the checkbox Use ALT as Meta key (and Escape).

  3. Press the alt-f key combination two times
    (OPTION+right-arrow for Mac OSx).

  4. Press the alt-b key combination one time.
    (OPTION+left-arrow for Mac OSx).

    alt-b moves one word backwards for Windows OS
    ctrl-w deletes a word to left of the cursor.
    After command is deleted, then type new command and press ctrl-e to move to end of the command line.
  5. Press the ctrl-w shortcut key. What happens?

  6. Type the following command: ls

  7. Press the ctrl-e key combination

    What happens?

  8. Press the ENTER key to execute the command.

  9. Press the up arrow key. What happens?

  10. Press the ctrl-u key combination. What happens?

  11. Press the up arrow key combination, and see what happens when you press BACKSPACE , <ctrl><BACKSPACE> and <ctrl><h>.
    Why is it important to know those series of key combinations?

  12. Press the ctrl-u key combination to clear the line.

  13. Press the ctrl-l key combination. What happens? What is the advantage of using ctrl-u as opposed to ctrl-l?

The Bash shortcut keys that you just learned are sufficient to perform Bash Shell editing.
Although you are NOT required to learn other short-cut keys, here is a link to a listing in case you are interested:
https://ostechnix.com/list-useful-bash-keyboard-shortcuts/


Part 2: Performing Online Assignments

You are required to perform 3 online assignments throughout this course. This online assignment is used to teach and reinforce
Linux commands to gain experience for quizzes, midterm and final exams.

In this section, you will learn to:

  • Select the correct section for assignment submission
  • Perform the first section and 3 parts of the second section of assignment #1
  • Verify that you successfully completed both sections
  • Exit your online assignment #1.


Perform the following steps:

Initial Assignment Window to Allow Student to Select Correct Course Section.
  1. In your Matrix account, issue the following command:
    ~uli101/a1

  2. Press ENTER at the "Notes" screen.

  3. A screen similar to the one displayed on the right will appear.

    WARNING: You need to select the CORRECT section for the course which you belong to.
    If you do NOT select your correct section, your assignment may not be recorded for marks!


  4. Select the 3 letter code corresponding to the correct ULI101 section and professor and press ENTER

  5. After you have selected your course section, There will be a screen that provides several important notes before proceeding.
    Please take a few moments to read those notes and press ENTER to proceed.

    Main Assignment Window to View Which Sections Need to be Completed.
  6. The assignment main menu will then be displayed.

    NOTES:
    • Near the bottom of the window, you will see "You are currently registered to" followed by the section letter and instructor name. Double-check your course timetable to confirm that this the correct section letter. If you have selected the WRONG section, type C in the menu selection area and press ENTER. You will return back to the original window to select your correct course section.

    • Near the top of the window displays the sections to complete in the assignment. You are NOT required to complete all sections at the same time. You can check the assignment #1 link on the ULI101 main WIKI page to note the due date for assignment #1. Sections that are NOT completed will be displayed in reverse text with a blue background. On the other hand, when you compete a section, then the section will appear as regular text
      (i.e not in reverse text).

      Main Assignment Window to Confirm Which Sections Have or Have Not Been Completed.
    • If you want to verify that you have completed sections for the assignment, look for the text "Marks earned so far for ULI101 Assignment:" and it will show how many sections have been completed. When it shows all sections completed, then your assignment is finished and you should receive full marks provided that you have selected your correct course section.

  7. At the menu assignment #1 window, enter 1 in the menu selection area to begin the first section called "Introduction to Unix Commands".

  8. When you have completed this section, you will be returned to the main window.
    View the contents of this window to confirm that you completed this section.

  9. When you have time this week, enter 2 in the menu selection area and perform the first 3 parts only
    (Unix Command Structure, Entering and Editing Commands, Using the Online Manual).

  10. When you have completed this section, you will be returned to the main window.
    View the contents of this window to confirm that you completed this section.

    NOTE: Although you are NOT allowed to use reference sheets for course evaluations, it is recommended to create one for your personal use, and write down Linux commands, their arguments and options, so your can successfully perform quizzes, midterm exam, and final exam.

  11. In order to exit the assignment #1 screen, enter q

  12. Run the command to restart your assignment #1 and go to the main menu.
    What do you notice?

    If you successfully completed the first two sections, they no longer appear in reverse video.
    This indicates that you have completed the first two sections of this assignment.

  13. Exit your Assignment 1, and exit your Matrix session.

  14. Proceed to the next section to perform additional practice. Linux is about "doing"! The more practice questions you perform,
    the better mark you will achieve for this course and have a better foundation of issuing Linux commands to be more productive in your future courses.

LINUX PRACTICE QUESTIONS

The purpose of this section is to obtain extra practice to help with quizzes, your midterm, and your final exam.

Here is a link to the MS Word Document of ALL of the questions displayed below but with extra room to answer on the document to simulate a quiz:

https://ict.senecacollege.ca/~murray.saul/uli101/uli101_week1_practice.docx

Your instructor may take-up these questions during class. It is up to the student to attend classes in order to obtain the answers to the following questions. Your instructor will NOT provide these answers in any other form (eg. e-mail, etc).


Review Questions:

  1. What is a “Linux Cluster”? What is an advantage of using a Linux cluster?
  2. List three unique server names at Seneca college and briefly explain the purpose of that server.
  3. List the steps to connect and login to your Matrix Seneca College account on your laptop or your home computer.
  4. List alternative methods to connect to your Matrix account, including if you have an Apple Mac computer or are running the Linux operating system.
  5. List 3 unique ways to log-out of your Matrix account (not including closing the SSH window or application).
  6. What is the difference between a Linux command and an argument?
  7. What is the purpose of a Linux command option?
  8. What character(s) are used to separate commands and arguments?
  9. Create a table listing each Linux command, useful options that were mentioned in this tutorial for the following Linux commands:
    pwd , cd , ls , cal , date , who , w , whoami , who am I , clear