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OPS235 Lab 1 19

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[[Category:OPS235]][[Category:OPS235 Labs]]
{{Admon/caution|THIS IS AN OLD VERSION OF THE LAB|'''This is an archived version. Do not use this in your OPS235 course.'''}}
=Fedora 19 Installation (on Main Host - f19host)=
==Required Materials (Bring to All Labs)==
* Fedora 19 LIVE CD (not used in lab1)* Fedora 19 x86_64 Installation DVD(4.1 GB)* SATA Hard Disk (in removable disk tray- storage capacity at least 250 GB)
* USB Memory Stick
* Lab Logbook
(Note: Fedora 19 LIVE CD is not used in lab1)
Note: Follow the same procedure when booting to your external hard disk in future lab sessions at Seneca's labs.|
<li>Verify that the Keyboard is set to '''English (English (US))'''.</li>
<li>Verify that "Gnome Desktop" is the default software selection.</li>
<li>Click on the '''Date &amp; Time''' icon. Select for the city of '''Toronto''' (you can type, select, or click on the graphical region on the map). When finished, click on the '''Done '''button located in the top rightleft-hand corner. This will return you to the installation summary screen.</li>
{{Admon/important|Manual vs Automatic Partitioning|By default, the Fedora19 installation DVD will want to automatically select the partitions that will be created during the installation process. It is important to NOT select the default partitioning process, since you will be required to make customized partitions such as '''/var/lib/libvirt/images''' and also assign customized sizes for the partitions. Please carefully follow the instructions below for correct setup. Not carefully following the instructions below can result in having to redo the entire installation process!|
<li>Ignore the "'''New Fedora 19 Installation'''" section. Instead, Click the "'''Fedora Linux 19 for X86_64'''" to expand the section. Delete each partition in that section by clicking on each partition (eg. /, /home. swap), and click the minus button "-" on the bottom left-hand-side to delete and verify that you want to delete those partitions.</li>
<li>When all the partitions are removed, click on the plus sign on the bottom left-hand-side to create your partitions.
On your hard drive you will need to create at least the following partitions. These may be primary partitions or logical drives. If you have more space than 160GB 250GB available - you can add the extra space in equal parts to '''/home''' and '''/var/lib/libvirt/images'''</li>
<ul><li>'''50GB''' for '''/''' (i.e. "root")</li>
<li>'''500 MB''' for '''/boot'''</li>
<li>Click the '''Done''' button, and click '''Accept Changes''' in the Summary of Changes dialog box to return to the installation summary screen.</li>
<li>Click '''Begin Installation''' to proceed with the install. </li> <li>During the installation process, you will need should notice two icons to create a password and create a regular user account. You are required to create a root password and at least you must create one regular user account(user creation).{{Admon/important|Creating Effective and Easy-To-Remember Passwords|Pick a password that is hard to guess to protect your system. (Recommendation: use the first letter and all the punctuation from a favorite phrase or song verse. For example, "To be or not to be, that is the question!" could become the password "Tbontb,titq!"). A password strength indicator is provided to recommend if the password is weak or strong. Obviously, a stronger password is better.|}}</li>
 <ol> <li value="4">Note: the "Performing post-installation setup tasks" runs for several minutes. When the installation process is complete, a screen will prompt the user to finish configuration (or to confirm completion). The user should make certain to remove the DVD prior to rebooting the computer from the hard disk drive.</li> <li> Write in your lab log-book the time it took to perform this DVD Fedora install.</li> <li>Finish the post-installation customization, wait for the login screen to appear, and then login to your computer account and your created (i.e. your name).</li>  {{Admon/importanttip|Unlocking Screen &amp; Disabling Screen Lock|Creating Effective and EasyBy default, your account will go into screen-Tosaver (lock-Remember Passwords|Pick out) mode after a few minutes of inactivity. Usually, you will need to enter your user password that is hard to guess return to protect your systemdesktop. (Recommendation: use the first letter '''The Gnome 3 desktop environment requires that you click and drag your mouse pointer upwards in order to access and all the punctuation from enter your password'''. Although locking your screen is a favorite phrase or song versegood security precaution, it can be annoying while performing labs. For exampleTo '''disable''' the screen lock feature: '''Right-click''' on your username at the top right-hand corner, "To be or not to beclick '''Settings''' in the context menu, that is click the question!" could become '''Privacy''' icon, and click the password "Tbontb,titq!'''on'''")value by the lock option to turn ''Automatic Screen Lock'' to '''OFF'''. A password strength indicator is provided to recommend if When finished, click the password is weak or strong. Obviously'''Close''' button, a stronger password is betterand then close the Settings screen.|
<li>When the installation process is complete, a screen will confirm completion, and ask the user to remove the DVD, and reboot the computer. Write in your lab log-book the time it took to perform this DVD Fedora install.</li>
<li>Remove the Fedora Installation DVD, and click '''Reboot'''.</li>
<li>Finish the post-installation customization, wait for the login screen to appear, and then login to your computer account and your created (i.e. your name).</li> <li>It is recommended to open a web-browser and authenticate into the Senenet system by entering your Seneca username and password. You should do this in future labs in order to be connected to the Internet</li> <livalue="7">Proceed to Investigation 2</li>
'''Answer the Investigation 1 observations / questions in your lab log book.'''
  ==Investigation 2: How many file packages and files are installed on the system?Obtaining Operating System Information==
'''For the rest of the tasks in this lab, you must login to your installed Fedora system using your Learn account, open a terminal and execute the following listed Linux commands to obtain information for your lab-logbook''' (lab1). If you get a Permission Denied message when trying to execute a command, then switch to the '''superuser''' account by running the command '''su -''' and type in your password for "root" (since you are the main administrator for your Fedora system). Once the intended command is executed, type "exit" to exit from the superuser account and return to your regular Learn account.
{{Admon/importanttip|Using Superuser Privilege|Throughout this course, you may need to execute commands using the privileges of the the administrative user (username "root", also called the "superuser"). To switch from your account to the root account, type the command: <code>su</code>
After switching user notice and make note of the change in your shell prompt. Also note the difference in output for the <code>whoami</code> and<code>pwd</code> commands.
'''Whenever this is required, make a note of it, and determine why superuser privilege is required.'''
Navigate through your Graphical Fedora system, '''locate and run a terminal program (in order to issue Linux commands). Issue and record the commands used and the output generated in each of the following steps:''' <!-- /root/install.log not available in Fedora 19 Full Install DVD
# The name of the installation log file is <code>'''/root/install.log'''</code> -- It is an ASCII file (how can you be sure?) which can be viewed with the <code>'''less'''</code> command.
 --># You can make use of this file Boot your computer from your hard drive (see instructions above to determine how many packages have been installed: complete display boot menu by pressing F10). Log into your regular user account.# Open a terminal by clicking the following command to count the number of packages that are labelled "Installing" '''Activities '''menu, and typing in the installation log filesearch area: '''terminal'''. A terminal program icon should appear:click on the icon to open a shell terminal.:# Issue the following command: <code>'''grep ________________ /root/install.log | wc su -l'''</code><ol> <li value="3"># Using the <code>rpm</code> command: you can also use the following commands to list all the installed packages, and the total number of packages installed:</li></ol>
:: <code>'''rpm -q -a'''</code>
:: <code>'''rpm -q -a | wc -l'''</code>
:: <code>'''rpm -qa | wc -l'''</code>
<li value="45">The <code>'''-q'''</code> option means query, and the <code>'''-a'''</code> option means all (in other words, query all installed software packages). Did you get </li> <li>Enter the following command and record the same number of packages from :</ol>:: <code>'''rpm -qal | wc -l'''</code>::::::What is the difference between the above two methodscommands: rpm -qa and rpm -qal?(Refer to the online man pages for the rpm command for an answer).:: </liol> <livalue="7">Some of the files on your system were installed with the software packages, and some were created by system activity (for example, by creating your Learn account and by logging in). If you know the package name (from the <code>install.log</code>), you can list all the files that were installed from the package by using the following command:</li>
:: <code>'''rpm -q -l package_name'''</code><br />(where '''package_name''' represents the name of the ''application'' or ''package'')
<li value="68">This combines the <code>'''-q'''</code> (query) option with the <code>'''-l'''</code> (list filenames) option</li>
<li>You can pipe the outupt through <code>'''wc -l'''</code> to count the number of lines:</li>
:: <code>'''rpm -ql package_name| wc -l'''</code>
<li value="810">Using what To obtain specific information regarding a specific program, you learned in steps 3, 4, and 7, get a count of can combine the total number of files installed by all of <code>'''-q'''</code> (query) option with the software packages on your system<code>'''-i'''</code> (info) option.Issue the following command to obtain detailed information regarding the '''gnome-terminal''' application:</li></ol>::<code>'''rpm -qi gnome-terminal'''</code> <ol> <livalue="11">To find out the name that you have assigned to your Linux system, enter the command: <code>'''hostname'''</code></li> <li>Issue the following command: <code>'''hostname f19host'''</code></li> <li>Re-issue the <code>hostname</code> command. What happened?</li>
<li>To find out the kernel version of your GNU/Linux workstation and the date it was created, enter the command: <code>'''uname -rv'''</code></li>
<li>To find out all the system processes running on your GNU/Linux workstation, enter the command: <code>'''ps -ef'''</code></li>
{{Admon/important|Pathname for USB Stick|The procedure has changed to refer to the usb device for distributions prior to Fedora17 Fedora19 (eg. /media/usb-device-name). For Fedora17Fedora19, the new device pathname is:<br /><b>/run/media/userloginid/usb-device-name</b> .<br /><br />Note: You can press the <b>tab</b> key to guess what the userloginname/usb-device-name is...}} 
<li value="1316">Copy the installation log file <code>'''/root/installps.loglst'''</code> and the file from your '''ps.lst/root''' directory to a USB memory key, or for backup purposes (Note: you can also use the '''scp''' command to backup the ps.lst file to your matrix account as a backupif you wish).</li>
{{Admon/tip |Backup up to your USB Key|When your USB key is inserted into your computer, the device is recognised and assigned a name. You can view your USB drive by issuing the command <code>ls /run/media/yourusername</code> and view the mounted devices. Then you can issue a Linux command as "super-user" to copy the files to your USB device.}}
<li value="1417">View the section below to learn about and perform an update on your fresh Fedora install (you may have to find spare time to perform this install if you are running short on lab time). '''Do <u>not</u> proceed to Investigation 3 without performing an update'''.</li>
{{Admon/tip |Updating Fedora|The Fedora software <ol><li value="18">Since your installation DVD is updated frequently to add features, fix bugsan image (picture frozen in time), your Fedora 19 distribution may be lacking important fixes and upgrade securityenhancements. '''Perform a system We will now perform an update to get the latest versions of the packages installed in Fedora: Start . First, you must start the Firefox web browser, turn off popup window blocking (select ''Edit>Preferences'', then select the Content tab and uncheck un-check the box to Block Popups), then login to SeneNET. Open a terminal and type <code/li>su</codeli> Switch to start a your bash shell as root. Enter terminal, and issue the command : <code>'''yum update'''</code>''' This will download and install all of the packages that have been updated since the installation DVD image was created. If you complete this command at Seneca it should run quite fast as Seneca College hosts a Fedora Repository mirror (a copy of all of the current fedora packages, on a local web server).}}</li></ol>
'''Answer the Investigation 2 observations / questions in your lab log book.'''
{{Admon/tip |Rusty Issuing Linux commands since ULI101?|To be an effective Linux administrator, you need to become comfortable on issuing Linux commands in a shell, and use resources to quickly learn how to properly formulate Linux commands...<br /><br />You can run the following online tutorials to practice (refresh) issuing Linux commands. These tutorials were designed for another course called "OPS435", but you can still use them for practice. Simply open a shell, SSH into the Matrix server (eg. ssh and run the following 4 tutorials (you can copy and paste these separate pathnames and run like a program):<br /><br />'''/home/ops435/tutorials/tutorial1<br />/home/ops435/tutorials/tutorial2<br />/home/ops435/tutorials/tutorial3<br />/home/ops435/tutorials/vi-tutorial'''<br /><br />You can also refer to the section above called '''Linux Command Online Reference''' to see how use use the following Linux commands to obtain the required information.}}
# To check the network configuration settings obtained from the DHCP server, run the following commands, describing the output in your log book:
#* '''ifconfig'''(look for a connection like "'''em1'''" - this should be your network interface for your machine).
#* '''route'''
#* '''nslookup''' (at the > prompt, enter the word "server" (do not type the quotes) and record the output. Type exit to leave nslookup).<br /><br />
#* '''MAC address''' (physical or hardware address) of the ethernet network interface
#* '''Subnet mask'''
#* '''The IP address''' (logical address) assigned by the DHCP server(record both IPV4 and IPV6 addresses. We will discuss IPV4 vs IPV6 in lab6...)
#* '''The default route''' (gateway)
#* '''The DNS nameserver'''
{{Admon/important|SELinux|SELinux stands for '''Security-Enhanced Linux'''. It is a component that helps to better secure the system to protect against intrusion (hackers). Usually, SELinux is enabled upon the default install of Fedora. SELinux can be a good thing, if you take care of it and are aware that it is enabled or disabled. It is recommended that you '''disable SELinux by default''' for this course, since you will be communicating with other virtual machines and can cause machines NOT to communicate.}}
# Disabling SELinux on Fedora is actually quite simple, just edit the file '''/etc/selinux/config''' and change the following line to look like this:
* Can login with your "learn" account name
* Has the package countand package file counts* Correct hostname (f19host)* Has correct size partitions for: (Hint: Can issue '''lsblk''' (listblock command)):* '''root /''' (20GB50GB), '''/boot''' (500MB), '''/home''' (30GB40GB), '''swap''' (8GB)
:* '''/var/lib/libvirt/images''' (100GB)
:* Hint: Can issue '''lsblk''' (listblock command)* Has the correct IP address (both IPV4 and IPV6) and MAC address* Find out the default Default route (gateway)
* IP of the DNS name server
* Name and contact information on your disk pack
# What is the home directory for the user "root"?
# How do you determine the host name of your GNU/Linux workstation?
# How do you determine the kernel version of your Linux system? Why is it important to know your Linux Kernel version?
# Why is it important to have a listing of running processes after your Linux system installation?
# What command can display the NIC's MAC address?