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OPS235 Lab 7 - CentOS6

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{{Admon/caution|Draft LabTHIS IS AN OLD VERSION OF THE LAB|'''This lab has NOT been released for regular distributionis an archived version. When the lab is ready to be released, Do not use this caution banner will disappearin your OPS235 course.'''}}
= Setup and Configure Secure Shell Services (ssh) Using Virtual Machines =
=== Investigation 2: How do you establish an ssh connection. ===
{{Admon/note | Use your fedora2 centos2 VM | Complete this investigation on your fedora2 centos2 VM.}}
# Establish an ssh connection to your fedora3 centos3 VM using the command:<br /><code>ssh ops235@fedora3centos3</code><br />(Where 'ops235' is the account on fedora3 centos3 and 'fedora3centos3' is the hostname of the fedora3 centos3 VM.)
# You should receive a message similar to the following:
The authenticity of host 'fedora3 centos3 (' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 53:b4:ad:c8:51:17:99:4b:c9:08:ac:c1:b6:05:71:9b.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'fedora3centos3' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
{{Admon/note |Storing Fingerprints | When a user connects to a host using ssh, the host sends a fingerprint or digital signature to the client to establish its identity. The first time a connection is established the identity must be stored for subsequent connections. The fingerprints are stored separately for each user in a file called <code>~/.ssh/known_hosts</code> . <br /><br />From now on when you connect to that host the client will compare the received fingerprint against the list of known hosts before connecting. If the fingerprint does not match it could indicate somebody had setup a system to impersonate the computer you wish to connect to and you would receive a message like this}}
The RSA host key for fedora3 centos3 has changed,
and the key for the according IP address
is unchanged. This could either mean that
Add correct host key in /home/user1/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending key in /home/user1/.ssh/known_hosts:53
RSA host key for fedora3 centos3 has changed and you have requested strict
Host key verification failed.
{{Admon/note |POSSIBLE DNS SPOOFING DETECTED | If you receive a message like the one displayed above, you should investigate why it is happening as it could indicate a serious security issue, or it could just mean that something on the host has changed, i.e. the OS was reinstalled.}}
<ol><li value="4">When prompted enter your password for your ops235 account on fedora3centos3.</li><li>Establish an ssh connection using your learn account from fedora3 centos3 to fedora2centos2.</li></ol>{{Admon/note |Proof of Established SSH Connection | When you have both ssh connections established between fedora2 centos2 and fedora3 centos3 check your network connections using the netstat command. You should now see at least 2 TCP connections with a state of ESTABLISHED. One connection represents the connection from fedora2 centos2 to fedora3 centos3 and the other represents the connection from fedora3 centos3 to fedora2centos2. You should also see that you still have ssh listening to TCP port 22. Notice that the client side of each connection uses a random port number in the upper ranges. This common behaviour for client side applications.}}
<ol><li value="6">Logout of your ssh connection by typing <code>exit</code>.
<li>Check the state of the connection after logging out. Wait a few minutes and then check again. Record your observations.</li>
<li>Make certain to exit all connections, and that your shell is located in your <u>Fedora2centos3</u> server. You can verify this by entering the command: <code>hostname</code>
<li>Use the Internet to search for "TCP 3 way handshake" to see how TCP connections are established and closed.</li></ol>
{{Admon/tip | Methods of Authenticating User Identity | In this part of the lab you established an ssh connection to another host using a password to establish your identity. But passwords are not the only or even the best way of authenticating your identity. We can also use Public/Private key encryption. We will be looking at Public Key Authentication in the next investigation}}
'''Answer the Investigation 2 observations / questions in your lab log book.'''
=== Investigation 3: How do you establish an ssh connection using Public Key Authentication. ===
{{Admon/note | Use your fedora2 centos2 VM | Complete this investigation on your fedora2 centos2 VM.}}
{{Admon/note | | '''Public Key authentication''' is a method of establishing identity using a pair of encryption keys that are designed to work together. One key is known as your private key (which as the name suggests should remain private and protected) and the other is known as the public key. (which as the name suggests can be freely distributed) The keys are designed to work together to encrypt data asymmetrically, that is to say that when we encrypt data with one of the keys it can only be decrypted with the other key from the pair. This means that when we connect, ssh can use the private key that only exists on my system in my account, to encrypt a message. That message can be decrypted by anybody with the corresponding public key. While it doesn't mean the message is secure as anybody could decrypt it with the public key, it does establish my identity, if the host can successfully decrypt the message then it must have come from the one person in possession of the private key. This basic method of authentication is used extensively in many network communications protocols that require the ability to authenticate identity.}}
# Start by generating a keypair as your learn account on fedora2 centos2 using the command:<br /><code>ssh-keygen</code>
# That should generate output similar to the following:
Your public key has been saved in /home/user1/.ssh/
The key fingerprint is:
93:58:20:56:72:d7:bd:14:86:9f:42:aa:82:3d:f8:e5 user1@fedora2centos2</pre>
<ol><li value="3"> After generating the keys it prompts you for the location to save the keys. The default is <code>~/.ssh</code> Your private key will be saved as <code>id_rsa</code> and your public key will be saved as <code></code></li></ol>
{{Admon/tip | Lengthy Passphrases | You will then be prompted for a passphrase. The passphrase must be entered in order to use your private key. Passphrases are more secure than passwords and should be lengthy, hard to guess and easy to remember. For example one passphrase that meets this criteria might be "seneca students like fish at 4:00am". Avoid famous phrases such as "to be or not to be" as they are easy to guess. It is possible to leave the passphrase blank but this is dangerous. It means that if a hacker were able to get into your account they could then use your private key to access other systems you use.}}
<!-- <ol><li value="4"> Once your keys have been saved you should check to make sure the permissions of the <code>.ssh</code> directory and your key files are secure. </li><li> Use the following commands to secure them:<br /><code>chmod 700 ~/.ssh</code><br /><code>chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa*</code><br /></li><li>The next step is to copy your public key to fedora3 (the remote host). You can use the scp command to do it.</li><li><code>scp</code> (secure copy) is used to copy files between hosts over the ssh protocol. The files are sent over an encrypted channel as is all ssh traffic. </li><li>Issue the command:<br /><code>scp ~/.ssh/ ops235@fedora3:</code></li><li>This will copy your public key to your ops235 home directory on fedora3.</li><li>The ''':''' is important as it separates the hostname from the path where it is copied to. </li><li>The default location is the users home directory on the remote host but you can also use an absolute or relative path after the ''':'''</li><li>Enter your password to complete the copy.</li><li>Now ssh to fedora3 using a password to authenticate.</li><li>Once logged in to fedora3 we need to add the public key to your list of authorized_keys</li><li>he safest way to do this is to append the contents of <code></code> to the <code>.ssh/authorized_keys</code> file. To do this use the command:<br /><code>cat ~/ >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys</code></li></ol>{{Admon/important | Note! | You don't want to overwrite the file as it may contain multiple public keys. Make sure you are using the append redirection '''>>''' and not '''>'''.}}<ol><li value="16"> Once again you should secure the <code>.ssh</code> directory and the <code>authorized_keys</code> file using the following commands:<br /><code>chmod 700 ~/.ssh</code><br /><code>chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys</code></li><li>Logout of fedora3 and log back in again.</li><li>You should be prompted to enter your passphrase to unlock your private key.</li></ol>{{Admon/tip | Tip: | If you are connecting from terminal started from in your GUI environment you can also choose it to remember your passphrase every time you login to the GUI.}} --><ol><li value="3">Now issue the command <code>ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ fedora3centos3</code></li> <li>Now we can ssh into fedora3 centos3 from fedora2 centos2 using 2 two different authentication methods.</li><li>Make certain to logout of your Fedora3 centos3 system. Use the <code>hostname</code> command to verify you are back in your Fedora2 centos2 server.</li>
=== Investigation 4: How do you use scp and sftp. ===
{{Admon/note | Use your fedora2 centos2 VM | Complete this investigation on your fedora2 centos2 VM.}}
{{Admon/note | | There are 2 common command line tools for transferring files between hosts over an encrypted ssh connection, <code>scp</code> and <code>sftp</code>.<br /> <code>sftp</code> is an interactive file transfer program that functions much like an ftp client. }}
# To connect to a remote host type the command:<br /><code>sftp ops235@fedora3centos3</code>
# This will establish an interactive session after authentication.
# Type <code>help</code> to see the list of sftp commands at any time.
# Try using <code>sftp</code> to transfer files back and forth between hosts.
# As you did previously you can also use the <code>scp</code> command to copy files to and from remote hosts and even from one remote host to another.
# Use <code>scp</code> to copy your services file to the fedora3 centos3 host into the /tmp directory. (The path on a remote host follows the ''':''') using the command: <br /><code>scp /etc/services ops235@fedora3centos3:/tmp</code># Experiment with <code>scp</code> to copy a file from fedora3 centos3 directly to fedora1centos1.{{Admon/tip| SELinux | SELinux may prevent ssh from accessing your home directories on Fedora 1 centos1 because you created a new filesystem there. You can reset the security context of the /home directory with this command: <code>restorecon -Rv /home</code>}}
=== Investigation 5: How do you use ssh to tunnel X. ===
{{Admon/note | Use your fedora2 centos2 and fedora1 centos1 VMs | Complete this investigation on your fedora2 centos2 and fedora1 VM'scentos1 VMs.}}
{{Admon/tip | fedora1 centos1 VM iptables and ssh service | You may need to adjust the firewall on your fedora1 centos1 host to complete this section, and verify that the sshd service is running on that VM.}}
You can also use ssh to tunnel window and bitmap information. Allowing us to login to a remote desktop host and run a Xwindows application such as <code>gedit</code> or <code>firefox</code> and the application will run on the remote host but be displayed on the local host.
<!-- * In order to allow remote users to tunnel your X window (GUI) applications you must configure <code>sshd</code> to forward this type of data.# Edit the sshd configuration file on fedora1. <code>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</code> and edit or uncomment the following:<pre>X11Forwarding yesX11DisplayOffset 10X11UseLocalhost yes</pre><ol><li value="2"> Restart the <code>sshd</code> service on fedora1 using the command:<br /><code>service sshd restart</code> --># From fedora2 centos2 <code>ssh</code> to fedora1 centos1 using the following command:<br /><code>ssh -X -C user@fedora1centos1</code> (Where 'user' is your learn account on fedora1centos1). The <code>-X</code> enables the forwarding of X window information, and the <code>-C</code> enables compression for better performance.
# Once connected run the <code>gedit</code> application. (Gnome Text Editor)
# The gedit window will display on fedora2 centos2 but it is running fedora1centos1.
# Enter some text and save a file with <code>gedit</code>.
# Exit <code>gedit</code>.
# Where was the file saved?
# Experiment with running other GUI applications through <code>ssh</code>.
'''Answer the Investigation 5 observations / questions in your lab log book.'''
== Further Securing your Secure Shell Connection ==
=== Investigation 6: How do you use ssh to tunnel other traffic. ===
{{Admon/note | Use your fedora2 centos2 and fedora1 centos1 VMs | Complete this investigation on your fedora2 centos2 and fedora1 VM'scentos1 VMs.}}
{{Admon/note | | You can also use an ssh connection to tunnel other types of traffic. There could be different reasons for doing this. For example tunneling traffic for an unencrypted application/protocol through ssh can increase the security of that application. Alternatively you could use it to circumvent a firewall that is blocking traffic you wish to use but allows ssh traffic to pass through.}}
# You will be working with the 2nd scenario of bypassing a firewall that blocks http traffic.
# In this investigation fedora1 centos1 will be your http server and fedora2 centos2 will be your client.# On the HTTP server (fedora1), make sure the Apache web server is installed by typing the command:<br /><code>rpm -q httpd</code># If it is installed check the configuration of the service to see if it is automatically started at any runlevels by issuing using the command:<br /><code>systemctl status httpd.servicechkconfig h</code>command.# If it has not been started automatically start the service using the service command:<br /><code>systemctl start httpd.service</code># Confirm that httpd is listening to TCP/80 using the netstat command:<br /><code>netstat -atnp</code>.
# Create a small html document called <code>/var/www/html/index.html</code> that displays a short message.*
# On the fedora1 centos1 (the http server) confirm everything is working locally by using a browser to connect to http://localhost# The Set the default firewall configuration on fedora1 is centos1 to REJECT incoming requests to http (TCP/80)# Confirm that you can't connect by using firefox on fedora2 centos to connect to fedora1 centos1 http://fedora1centos1/# On fedora2 centos2 confirm that the httpd service is stopped so it cannot interfere with your observations.
# The next step is to establish a tunnel. When you establish a tunnel you make an ssh connection to a remote host and open a new port on the local host. That local host port is then connected to a port on the remote host through the established tunnel. When you send requests to the local port it is forwarded through the tunnel to the remote port.
:::: [[Image:Tunnel.png]]
<ol><li value="13">Establish a tunnel using a local port on fedora2 centos2 of 20808, that connects to the remote port on fedora1 centos1 of 80, using the following command on fedora2centos2:<br /><code>ssh -L 20808:fedora1centos1:80 user@fedora1centos1</code></li></ol>{{Admon/note | Note! | The -L (which means Local port) takes one argument of <pre><local-port>:<connect-to-host>:<connect-to-port></pre> The command basically connects your local port of 20808 to the remote port of 80 on fedora1centos1. This means all requests to 20808 on the localhost (fedora2centos2) are actually tunnelled through your ssh connection to port 22 on fedora1 centos1 and then delivered to port 80 on fedora1centos1, bypassing the firewall. }}<ol><li value="14">Once the tunnel is established use netstat to verify the port 20808 is listening on fedora2centos2</li><li>Now using the browser on fedora2 centos2 connect to http://localhost:20808</li><li>You should see the index.html page on fedora1centos1.</li>
<li>Close the ssh connection and verify that the port 20808 is no longer listening.</li>
=== Investigation 7: How do you make sshd more secure ===
{{Admon/note | Note! | Complete this investigation on your fedora2 centos2 and fedora1 centos1 VM's.}}
{{Admon/note | | Anytime you configure your computer to allow logins from the network you are leaving yourself vulnerable to potential unauthorized access by so called "hackers". Running the sshd service is a fairly common practice but care must be taken to make things more difficult for those hackers that attempt to use "brute force" attacks to gain access to your system. Hackers use their knowledge of your system and many password guesses to gain access. They know which port is likely open to attack (TCP:22), the administrative account name (root), all they need to do is to "guess" the password.}}
# Confirm the new port is being used with a <code>netstat</code> command.
# Before we can use this new port we must change our firewall to allow traffic through the new port number and block access to port 22:<br /><code>iptables -I INPUT -p tcp -s0/0 --dport 22 -j DROP</code><br /><code>iptables -I INPUT -p tcp -s0/0 --dport 2200 -j ACCEPT</code>
# To test the new port connect to fedora1 centos1 from fedora2 centos2 using the following command:<br /><code>ssh -p 2200 user@fedora1centos1</code>
{{Admon/important|Cannot connect via SSH?|To fix issues with the ability to ssh, on both machines:<ul><li>Ensure ssh is running. Systemctl status sshd.service.</li><li>Disable selinux by going into /etc/selinux/config and change "enforcing" to "disabled"; "targeted" to "minimum".</li><li>If your are still encountering problems flush iptables.</li></ul>}}
{{Admon/tip | Tip! | For scp access the option to be used is: <code>scp -P 2200</code>}}
{{Admon/tip | Tip! | For more ideas on making sshd more secure consult the HOW-TO link above.}}
<ol><li value="14">Finally as a system administrator you should periodically monitor your system logs for unauthorized login attempts.</li>
<li>On Fedora CentOS systems the log file that is used is <code>/var/log/secure</code> </li>
<li>It also logs all uses of the <code>su</code> and <code>sudo</code> commands.</li>
<li>Attempt to connect to all of your VM's as root and other users using both public key and password authentication. Use some su and sudo commands also. </li>
'''Answer the Investigation 7 observations / questions in your lab log book.'''
== Completing the lab ==