OPS235 Lab 5 19

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Archiving Files, Compiling Software Packages from Source, Managing Services


Overview

  • In this lab, you are going to help conserve disk space by learning how to compress and decompress files that are stored on your computer server. In addition, you will learn alternative methods of how to install programs (decompressing zipped tarball archives and then compiling source code).
  • In addition, you will learn about how certain processes (services) work, and how the system administrator can manage these services (i.e. turn "on" and "off").

Objectives

  1. To create and use archive files (tar and tar.gz)
  2. Compiling software packages from source code
  3. Install an application from software development repositories using the bit utility
  4. Customising file-system start-up


Required Materials (Bring to All Labs)

  • Fedora 19 LIVE CD (Useful as a rescue disk)
  • Fedora 19 x86_64 Installation DVD
  • SATA Hard Disk (in removable disk tray)
  • USB Memory Stick
  • Lab Logbook

Prerequisites

  • Completion and Instructor "Sign-off" of Lab 4: OPS235 Lab 4


Linux Command Online Reference

Each Link below displays online manpages for each command (via http://linuxmanpages.com):

Archiving Utilities: Service Management Utilities:


Resources on the web

Additional links to tutorials and HOWTOs:

Archiving Files / Compiling Software from Source Code

Archive files are often used to contain source code for software; in this lab you will also be compiling software from a source code archive.

Note.png
Do not Shut-Down VMs Until Instructed
You will be running all 3 VMs eventually when performing this tutorial, Leave all VMs running until you are instructed to shut them down at the end of this lab.

Investigation 1: How do you create an archive file?

Note.png
Use fedora3
Perform these steps in the fedora3 virtual machine.
  1. Boot up your fedora3 VM.
  2. Change your working directory to /usr/share/doc/sudo*
  3. Use the tar (tape archiver) command to create an archive file named /tmp/archive1.tar
    • tar cvf /tmp/archive1.tar .
Important.png
Warning!
Don't miss the . at the end of the tar commands below! It specifies what should go into the archive: the contents of the current directory.
  1. What do the options c, v, and f mean?
  2. Record the archive file size.
  3. Compress the file using gzip:
    • gzip /tmp/archive1.tar
  4. Record the archive file size after compression.
  5. Make sure you're still in /usr/share/doc/sudo* and then create a compressed archive:
    • tar cvzf /tmp/archive2.tgz .
  6. What does the z option do?
  7. Compare the sizes of /tmp/archive1.tar.gz and /tmp/archive2.tgz. Why are they so close in size?

Answer the Investigation 1 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Investigation 2: How do you restore files from an archive?

Note.png
Remain in your fedora3 VM
Perform these steps in the fedora3 virtual machine.
  1. Create the directory /tmp/extract1
  2. Change to the /tmp/extract1 directory.
  3. Move the file archive1.tar.gz to your current directory.
  4. Unzip the first archive you created:
    • gunzip archive1.tar.gz
  5. Extract the files from the first archive:
    • tar xvf archive1.tar
  6. Are all the files there?
  7. Compare /tmp/extract1/README and /usr/share/doc/sudo*/README. Are they exactly the same? Why?
  8. Create the directory /tmp/extract2
  9. Move the file archive2.tgz to the /tmp/extract2 directory.
  10. Extract the files from the second archive:
    • tar xvzf /tmp/extract2/archive2.tgz
  11. Note that this time a separate gunzip command was not needed. Why?
  12. Repeat the previous command, leaving out the option "z". Does it work? Why?
  13. Compare the README file in this directory with the original file. Are they exactly the same?

Answer the Investigation 2 observations / questions in your lab log book.


Investigation 3: How do you build software from source code?

Now that you know how to create and decompress "zipped tarball archives", we will demonstrate how to install applications from websites containing these types of archives. Although this method is not as "user-friendly" as using the yum or rpm command, this method is useful if the application is NOT contained in regular software repositories...

Note.png
Use fedora2
Perform these steps in the fedora2 virtual machine.

In order to build software from source code, you must have the appropriate software development tools (such as make and gcc) and libraries (such as GTK) installed. The required tools will vary depending on the computer languages used in the software being built.

  1. Boot up your fedora2 VM.
  2. Issue the following command to install a basic set of development tools and libraries:
    yum groupinstall "Development Tools" "Development Libraries"
Note.png
Installing Development Libraries
In the future, remember the above procedure whenever installing software from source. Sometimes, you need to install additional tools or libraries in order to compile a particular software package
  1. Go to the directory /tmp
  2. Use the wget command to download the "tar ball" that contains the source code for the NLED text editor. wget is a command-line tool to download files from the web using the http or ftp protocols.
  3. Extract the files. Change to the newly-extracted directory (/tmp/nled-2.52)
  4. Check to see if there is a file named configure. If so, run it; if not, skip this step. (Most but not all source code archives contain this file)
  5. Check to see if there is a file named Makefile or makefile. If so, type the command:
    • make
  6. What does make do?
  7. Some software distributed as source code can automatically install itself. Try this command:
    • make install
  8. Most but not all source code archives include the capability of installing themselves this way.
  9. If the command make install does not work (how can you tell?), copy the nled program manually:
    • cp nled /usr/local/bin
  10. Test nled to make sure it works.

Answer the Investigation 3 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Managing Run-Levels and System Services

Investigation 4: How do we Manage Runlevels?

Note.png
Use fedora2
Perform these steps in the fedora2 virtual machine.

The runlevel command is now deprecated in Fedora, and has been replaced by systemctl. The newer system called systemd is a newer method to help simplify controlling both runlevels (referred to as "targets" and system services (referred to as "services"). Refer to the tutorial init vs systemd for systemctl command usages and reference.

  1. Issue the following Linux command:
    • systemctl list-units --type=target
  2. Note the target labelled graphical. Now trace the chain of links starting at /etc/systemd/system/default.target - what's it ultimately pointing to?
  3. Issue the following commands to switch the default mode (also known as target, formerly runlevel):
    • rm /etc/systemd/system/default.target
    • ln -s /lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target
  4. Restart your fedora2 VM. What happens?
  5. Log into your regular user account.
  6. Issue the following Linux command:
    • startx
  7. What happens?
  8. Log-off your graphical system. You should return to your shell prompt.
  9. Issue the following commands:
    • rm /etc/systemd/system/default.target
    • ln -s /lib/systemd/system/graphical.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target
  10. Reboot your fedora2 VM. What Happens?

Answer the Investigation 4 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Investigation 5: How do we Manage System Services?

Note.png
Remain in your fedora2 VM
Perform these steps in the fedora2 virtual machine.

We have seen that maintaining unneeded packages can be a security risk due to the unnecessary increase in the complexity of your system. Similarly, it is also unnecessarily hazardous, and even more so, to leave unneeded services running. In this investigation, we will learn how to control services, and turn off those services that we think are not necessary to help reduce security risks.}}

  1. Issue the following Linux command:
    • systemctl list-units --type=service
  2. Note the services that are currently running.
  3. Refer to the tutorial (init vs systemd ) to learn how to use the systemctl command to stop the service named iptables
  4. Issue the systemctl command to verify that this service has stopped.
  5. If you reboot now - the iptables service will be turned back on. We don't want it on though, it causes students headaches. To turn it off permanently we need to disable the service. Refer to the tutorial (init vs systemd ) to learn how to use the systemctl command to disable the service named iptables
  6. Reboot and confirm that it's no longer running.

Answer the Investigation 5 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Completing the Lab

Arrange evidence for each of these items on your screen, then ask your instructor to check each item:

  1. Compressed files: /tmp/archive1.tar.gz and /tmp/archive2.tgz
  2. nled application is installed
  3. Lab5 notes how to use systemctl commands
  4. VMs backed-up

Preparing for Quizzes

  1. What is the advantage of disabling services such as bluetooth?
  2. What is the difference between a .tgz file and a .tar.gz file? What do these stand for?
  3. What is the purpose of a repository?
  4. What is source code?
  5. How do you build software from source code?
  6. Which is preferred: installing from an RPM file, or installing from source code? Why?
  7. How do you use systemctl to:
    • list runlevel
    • list services
    • stop a service
    • start a service
    • Why is it important to learn how to manage services?
    • Why is it important to stop certain services?


Important.png
Backup your work
Backup your disk images for fedora2 and fedora3 Virtual Machines.