Difference between revisions of "OPS235 Lab 2 19"

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[[Category:OPS235]][[Category:OPS235 Labs]]
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{{Admon/caution|THIS IS AN OLD VERSION OF THE LAB|'''This is an archived version. Do not use this in your OPS235 course.'''}}
= Fedora 19 Installation Methods (on Virtual Machines: fedora1, fedora2, fedora3) =
= Fedora 19 Installation Methods (on Virtual Machines: fedora1, fedora2, fedora3) =

Latest revision as of 12:30, 24 September 2018

Stop (medium size).png
This is an archived version. Do not use this in your OPS235 course.

Fedora 19 Installation Methods (on Virtual Machines: fedora1, fedora2, fedora3)


A virtual machine is a software simulation of a computer which can be used as though it were actual hardware. It's possible to run multiple virtual machines on one computer, reducing hardware requirements and introducing flexibility. Some common uses of virtualization include:

  • Software testing -- Using multiple operating systems simultaneously on a single computer for testing and experimentation.
  • Network simulation -- Testing network services, protocols, and security scenarios with a small number of computers.
  • Penetration Testing -- Perform Scanning & enumeration in a safe and authorized environment to test for system vulnerabilities.
  • Isolation -- Protecting multiple sets of data by storing them on multiple virtual machines. If one of the virtual machines is compromised, the data on other virtual machines is still protected.
  • Server consolidation -- Reducing the number of physical servers in a network by moving physical machines to virtual machines. This saves hardware, administration, cooling, and electricity costs, and it can increase the utilization of hardware (by ensuring that the hardware is not under-loaded).
  • Load-balancing and disaster recovery -- It is possible to migrate virtual machines between different physical machines, to ensure that a workload is balanced across multiple computers, to allow routine hardware maintenance and upgrading, and to compensate for hardware failure or other disasters.

In this lab, you will create three virtual machines. This also gives you an opportunity to experiment with different ways of installing Fedora. Later in this course you will install another operating system distribution in a virtual machine.

You should already have both a Fedora installation DVD and a Fedora LIVE DVD.

In both cases, the boot media (which you used to load the installation software) and the installation source (the software that got installed) were the same: your DVD provides both. However, the Fedora (and most other Linux distributions) permits you to use any combination of boot media and installation media:

Method Boot Media Install. Source
Hard Disk
USB Flash Drive
Network (http/nfs repository)
PXE Network Boot X


  • Understand Virtualization
  • Use KVM virtualization on Fedora
  • Use a variety of installation methods:
    • Live Image Installation
    • Network Installation
    • Kickstart Installation
  • Understand the advantages and disadvantages of each type of installation, and be able to select the best installation method for a particular situation.

Required Materials (Bring to All Labs)

  • Fedora 19 LIVE DVD
  • SATA Hard Disk (in removable disk tray)
  • USB Memory Stick
  • Lab Logbook

(Note: The Fedora 19 x86_64 Full Installation DVD is not required for this lab)


  • Completion and Instructor "Sign-off" of Lab 1: OPS235 Lab 1

Linux Command Online Reference

Each Link below displays online manpages for each command (via http://linuxmanpages.com):

  • virsh (Refer to Fedora Virtualization Guide link in the "Resources on the Web" section)
  • gzip / gunzip

Resources on the Web

Virtualization: Live Image Installation: Network Installation: Kickstart Installation:

Fedora Virtualization Getting Started Guide

Fedora 19 Installation Guide

Fedora 19 Installation Guide

Performing Lab 2


Performing this Lab off the Seneca network (eg. at home)
It is recommended to perform this lab in one of Seneca College's labs. This lab uses servers which are on the Seneca network and which are not available from other locations (such as your home). If you attempt this lab from another location, adjust the belmont.senecac.on.ca URLs to point to another Fedora mirror server -- note that you may need to change the directory name as well as the server name. The installation of the fedora3 virtual machine must be done at Seneca.
  1. Open a web-browser, and open the OPS235 Lab #2 WIKI.

    You need to enter your "MySeneca" username and password to obtain a "wired" Internet connection (otherwise, you will not be able to perform the "groupinstall" command in the next step). Remember to perform a "wired-connection" (logging in with your MySeneca username and password via a web-browser) every time you boot-up your host machine...

  2. Open a shell terminal, and login to the root account.
Remember to use su - prior to running administration commands
A common mistakes students make in OPS235 is to forget to log into the root account prior to running administration commands. Therefore, if a command doesn't work, ask yourself, "is this is an administration command?"

  1. Install the Fedora virtualization software by issuing the Linux command: yum groupinstall "Virtualization" ( You can alternatively use the Linux command: pkcon install @virtualization )
More About KVM
The KVM virtualization software installed is in three parts:
  1. A system service named libvirtd that manages the VMs.
  2. Tools to manage virtualization, including the virt-manager graphical tool and the virsh command-line tool.
  3. The actual virtual machines themselves.
  1. Start the virtualization service using the systemctl command: systemctl start libvirtd.service
  2. The firewall configuration is altered by the addition of the virtualization software. Restart the firewall so that these changes become active: systemctl restart iptables.service
Maybe reboot your fedora host now
Sometimes virt-manager does not work properly unless you reboot after installing the virtualization software.

  1. After rebooting your computer system, and logging back into your account, start the graphical tool by clicking the Activities menu, in the search box, type virt-manager and then click the virtual manager icon.
Running virt-manager from command line (shell)
You can also run the virtual manager program from command line by typing "virt-manager". It is highly recommended to run the virtual machine manager from a regular user account and not the root account. Running virt-manager as root may not work due to configuration issues.
  1. You will be prompted to enter your password: enter your user (not root) password and click the "Authenticate" button.
  2. Record the setup commands in your lab log-book.
  3. Proceed to Investigation 1.
Note Comparison Chart In Investigation #4
In the next 3 investigations, you will install Fedora19 as separate virtual machines using different install techniques. It is highly recommended to print-out the comparison chart for each of these techniques prior to performing Investigations 1 - 3, and fill out the chart as you perform these investigations!

Investigation 1: Installing from the Fedora19 Desktop Live Disc (950MB)

Using an Image instead of a Live Disc
It is recommended that you perform this installation from your Fedora Desktop LIVE DVD (950MB). As a matter of interest (for future reference), it is possible to install directly from the ISO file you used to burn your Live DVD. There are many Internet tutorials that show the individual how to perform that task.


In this investigation, you will install Fedora from your live disc, and observe the differences between this type of installation and the DVD installation previously performed.

Note: There are two general tasks when installing an Operating System as a virtual machine:

  1. Create a Virtual Machine (in the Virtual Machine Manager) to hold the Operating System and its contents.
  2. Run the created Virtual Machine (created in step 1), and install the operating system while Virtual Machine is running.

VM Details

  • Name: fedora1
  • Boot media: Fedora 19 Desktop Live DVD
  • Installation source: Fedora 19 Desktop Live DVD
  • Memory: 1024MB
  • Disk space: 15GB
  • CPUs: 1

Screen-Shot Thumbnail Reference

Virtual Machine Screen Shots Thumbnails
While performing the Virtual Machine setup, click on the thumbnails below to provide a "visual reference" while performing this section.
Virtual Machine Manager: Create a New Virtual Machine
Step 1 of 5: Create a New Virtual Machine
Insert Fedora19 Live DVD (Click black dialog box)
Step 2 of 5: Create a New Virtual Machine
Step 3 of 5: Create a New Virtual Machine
Step 4 of 5: Create a New Virtual Machine
Step 5 of 5: Create a New Virtual Machine


  1. In the Virtual Machine Manger, click on the icon to Create a Virtual Machine in the upper-left corner:
    (refer to Virtual Machine Manager thumbnail above).
  2. A window will appear with the title New VM. There are five steps to be completed; click Forward after each step:
  3. Step 1 of 5: Enter the virtual machine (called fedora1) name and select Local install media (ISO image or CDROM) (refer to Step 1 of 5 thumbnail above).
  4. Click the Forward Button.
  5. Step 2 of 5: Insert the DVD containing the Fedora Live Disc image. Wait a moment for the disc to be recognized, You should see a black dialog box appear that recognizes the DVD. Click on the black box to confirm.
  6. Make certain that you select "Use CDROM or DVD".
  7. Under "Location your install media section", select "Use CDROM or DVD". Set the OS type to Linux and the Version to Fedora 19 (refer to Step 2 of 5 thumbnail above), then click the Forward Button.
  8. Step 3 of 5: Set the memory to 1024 MB and the number of CPUs to 1 (refer to Step 3 of 5 thumbnail above), Then click the Forward button.
  9. Step 4 of 5: This next step creates a disk file that will be used to simulate the virtual machine's disk drive. Select a size of 15 GB and check-mark the box labelled Allocate entire disk now (refer to Step 4 of 5 thumbnail above), then click the Forward button.
  10. Step 5 of 5: Review the options that you have selected. Make a note of the storage location. If anything needs to be changed, use the Back button to go back and edit it; otherwise, click Finish (refer to Step 5 of 5 thumbnail above).
Removing and Recreating VMs
If for some reason the user wants to remove a Virtual Machine, they can right-click the VM, and select delete in the Virtual Machine Manager. It is recommended to "delete the image file" in the remove VM dialog box when removing and then recreating a VM. Note: If you fail to properly remove the VM image file, it may affect the hard disk size for the new VM (i.e. use the old smaller size. Make certain to remove that VM image file prior to recreating the VM.

Fedora LIVE DVD Install Screen Shots Thumbnails
While performing the Fedora 19 LIVE DVD install, click on the thumbnails below to provide a "visual reference" while performing this particular Fedora installation.
The Virtual Machine will now start in Live mode. Install to Hard Disk
Installation Summary dialog box. Used to select Date and Time as well as Installation Destination
Installation Destination dialog box (confirm and select done).
Installation Options dialog box within Installation Destination process (make suggested settings and select done).
Manual Partitioning dialog box within Installation Destination process (click link to automatically create partitions and proceed to next dialog box).
Confirm partitions to be automatically created and then click done.
Confirm summary of changes, click Accept Changes, then click Begin Installation at the Installation Summary dialog box to proceed with your installation.
  1. When you have completed your installation, click the Quit button. You should return to the Fedora Live desktop.
  2. Shutdown the Fedora Live session by clicking on the Live User button (at the top right-hand corner) and select Power Off, and confirm that you want to power-off. It is a good idea to be patient! Sometimes it may take a few minutes for shut-down!

Virtual Machine Screen Size
The virtual machine screen size will change resolution as it switches from text to graphics mode. Use the VM menu option View>Resize to VM to resize the window to show the entire VM display. If this is larger than your screen size, use View>Scale Display>Always to scale the image so it fits on your screen.
  1. The Installation Summary dialog box will appear (similar to what you encountered in lab1 for your full DVD install). It is assumed that you will be familiar with the general steps on the installation process.
  2. Set the Time Zone for "Toronto".
  3. When back at the main installation summary menu, select Installation Destination.
  4. In the Installation Options dialog box Confirm approx. 15 GB for the Virtio Block Device and click the Done button in the top left-hand corner. Note: It may take a few minutes to access the next Installation Options dialog box, so please be patient!
  5. Click "I want to review/modify my disk partitions before continuing", confirm that the partition scheme is set to LVM, and click the Continue button.
  6. In the Manual Partitioning dialog box, click on the link "Click here to create them automatically"
  7. Review the automatically created partitions in the next dialog box. Record in your lab log-book the partition names and related sizes, and note the virtual hard disk device name (i.e. vda1).
  8. Click the Done button at the top left-hand corner.
  9. Confirm the Summary of Changes, and then click the "Accept Changes" button located on the bottom right-hand side. Note: please be patient, and wait a few minutes until you can access the Installation Summary dialog box. Click Begin Installation. Note the time that it takes to complete this installation.
  10. During the installation process, set a root password and create a least one regular user account.
Screen Lock
If during the install process, the screen locks, drag the mouse upwards, and simply press enter to unlock the screen (no password is required for a live user).
  1. After the installation process has completed, click on the Quit button. This should return you to the LIVE version of Linux that was running to help install to the Hard Drive. Click on the live username located at the top right-hand corner and power-off the machine.

Virtual Machine Fails to Shutdown.
You should shut down the VM normally as you would shutdown any operating system. If your VM does NOT shutdown normally, you can select from the Virtual Machine Manager window: Virtual Machine -> Shutdown -> Force Off.
  1. Make certain that you remove your Fedora19 Live DVD from your DVD drive. From your Virtual Machine Manager window, start your fedora1 virtual machine (remember to press the Play button to start the VM).
  2. Log into your fedora1 VM as a regular user (you created during the installation process).
  3. Upon first log-in, set your Gnome preferences (you are NOT required to set-up a cloud account for this course).
  4. Open a terminal (shell), and log into root.
  5. Change your host name to fedora1 (refer to your OPS235 Lab 1 notes).
  6. Compare the installation time to the amount of time it took to do this type of installation. Record this information in the table contained in Investigation 4.
Network / Service Considerations
Please perform the tasks below in order allow these Fedora systems to be able to communicate with each other. Failure to properly perform these operations can cause problems in future labs.
  1. Enable SSH access to your virtual machine with these commands (semi-colon allows commands to be run in sequence):
    systemctl start sshd; systemctl enable sshd.service
  2. Find out the IP address of your virtual machine: ifconfig eth0
  3. Enter the following command on your virtual machine to create a firewall exception to allow ssh traffic into the machine:
    iptables -I INPUT -p tcp -s0/0 -d0/0 --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
  4. Confirm that you can ssh to your virtual machine from your host (f19host): ssh fedora1_IP_address (determined from step 27 above)
Switch to Virtual Machine Manager Window
If you are currently in a Virtual machine, but want to switch to the Virtual Machine Manager Window, simply click Activities> Select the Virtual Machine manager window.

Answer the Investigation 1 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Investigation 2: Installing from the Network

Authenticate to the network
The rest of this lab uses network access. Be sure to authenticate to the network using your browser before proceeding.


It is possible to install Fedora entirely from the network. In this investigation, you will install Fedora from a webserver on Seneca's LAN.

VM details


  1. Create the VM (called fedora2) as you did with the fedora1 virtual machine, except:
    • In step 1 of 5, set the installation type to Network Install (HTTP, FTP, or NFS).
    • In step 2 of 5, provide the location of the software source by providing the URL http://belmont.senecac.on.ca/fedora/releases/19/Fedora/x86_64/os/ . Select the system to automatically detect OS type and version. Did it work? If it didn't work, you can move backwards to a previous screen and then manually select the appropriate OS type and Linux version.
    • In step 3 of 5, select the appropriate RAM.
    • In step 4 of 5, set the hard-drive space to 20GB (NOT 15 GB!)
    • In step 5 of 5, review the settings, and click Finish.
  2. Observe the boot process. How is it different from booting from an optical disc (DVD)?
  3. Start the installation process (make certain to use information in the VM Details section above).
  4. Complete the Installation Summary sections (Date and Time, Installation Destinatation) like you did in the fedora1 install, except in the partitioning step, select Use All Space and enable the checkbox labelled Review and modify partition layout. Allow the installation program to automatically create the partitions, but we will be making changes to the partition sizes.
  5. On the next screen, change the logical volumes as follows:
    • Select the logical volume (partition) root (i.e. / ), and reduce the size to 10 GB, then click Update Settings.
    • Click the plus sign (i.e. +) to add a logical volume called /home with a size of 2 GB. Note that you can make changes to other items (such as the file system type like ext4), but you are not required to do this for this lab.
  6. Review your changes, click Done, click Accept Changes to return to the Installation Summary.
  7. Make certain that Software Selection is set to Gnome Desktop.
  8. Complete the installation, and set a root password and at least one regular user account.
  9. Click Reboot to restart the system. Note: be patient for the reboot process! (Force a Virtual Machine shutdown only if absolutely necessary).
  10. Record the time taken to install, and compare this to the time taken by the previous installations.
  11. What was different with your fedora2 install (upon completion) that was different than your fedora1 install? What was similar?
  12. Record this information in the table contained in Investigation 4.

Adding Repositories
Repositories are online resources that contain operating system programs, application programs, was well as updates (patches). Although you have the basic repositories for Fedora19, you can add other repositories as well for "cutting-edge" programs or special applications that may not be available via the regular repositories.
  1. Turn the screen lock feature of in your fedora2 VM by selecting Activities, typing settings, and clicking the system settings icon. Click the Privacy icon, and switch lock screen from ON to OFF. After changing the settings, close the system settings window.
  2. To add the RPM FUSION repository issue the following command (you can copy and paste to a shell in your fedora2 VM):
    su -c 'yum localinstall --nogpgcheck http://download1.rpmfusion.org/free/fedora/rpmfusion-free-release-$(rpm -E %fedora).noarch.rpm http://download1.rpmfusion.org/nonfree/fedora/rpmfusion-nonfree-release-$(rpm -E %fedora).noarch.rpm'
  3. You will be required to enter your root password.
  1. Proceed to Investigation 3.

Answer the Investigation 2 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Investigation 3: Installing from the Network using Kickstart


When Fedora is installed using the techniques you have used so far, the user is asked a number of questions. In some situations, it is better to provide the answers to these questions in a file rather than answer them individually. This type of file is called a kickstart file.

In this investigation, a kickstart file is provided for you. You can also create or modify a kickstart file using a regular text editor or a graphical tool.

VM details


  1. Create the VM as you did with the fedora2 Virtual Machine.
  2. In step 2 of 5, use the same URL for Installation Source. Click to expand the URL Options and enter the Kickstart URL: http://matrix.senecac.on.ca/~murray.saul/murray-kickstart.cfg . Make certain to select the option for the kick-start file to determine the OS type and version and click Forward.
  3. Specify the RAM amount (1024 MB) and Hard Disk space (15GB) and proceed to next screen.
  4. Verify the installation settings, and then click Finish.
  5. Observe the installation. Accept default questions, and ignore errors (such as user account error). How is it different from booting from an optical disc (DVD)? What is the purpose of the kickstart file?
  6. Complete the installation. Record the time taken to install, and compare this to the time taken by the previous installations.
  7. What happens when the installation is finished? If installation is finished, but nothing happens when you click the "reboot" button, then force a shutdown.
  8. Take a look at the kickstart file by clicking on the link in a web-browser (using the URL you entered) and search for "password" (you may have to search for this pattern a couple of times). Determine the root password as well as the regular username and password for the first user account.
  9. Boot the virtual machine and log in (use the user ID and password information from the previous step). Compare the experience to the first time you booted the other virtual machines.
  10. You can shutdown your text-based fedora3 VM by issuing the following Linux command (as root): shutdown or halt. Try to wait a least 2 minutes to see if the VM complete shuts-down. Only force a shutdown if absolutely necessary.
  11. Why do you think you have installed both graphical and text-based VMs for this course?
  12. Record this information in the table contained in Investigation 4.

Answer the Investigation 3 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Investigation 4: Updating and Comparing the VMs

  1. In each VM, run this command: yum update
  2. Record the answers to these questions in your log book:
    • How long did it take to run on each VM? How many packages were updated?
    • Why does it take longer in some VMs than others?

Complete the following table (and transfer into your lab2 log-book notes):

f19host fedora1 fedora2 fedora3
Installation Method Installation Disc Live Disc Network Installation Network Installation + Kickstart
Packages Installed
Updates Installed immediately after installation
Software could be selected during installation
Disk layout could be selected during installation
No questions asked during installation
Total installation time (after installation questions)
Amount of disk space used
Questions asked during first boot
Advantages of this type of installation
Disadvantages of this type of installation
This type of installation is recommended for...

Investigation 5: Managing Virtual Machines from the Command Line

Manage virtual machines from the host
The commands used to manage virtual machines must be executed on the host (your disk pack) and not inside a virtual machine.
  1. Start the fedora1 virtual machine, and stop the fedora2 and fedora3 virtual machines.
  2. Switch to the f19host machine, and open a shell terminal.
  3. Enter these commands into your f19host machine and note the result:
    • virsh list
    • virsh list --all
    • virsh list --inactive
  4. Now, shut-down your fedora1 VM normally, and close the fedora1 VM window. Make certain NOT to close the Virtual Machine Manager main window.
  5. Switch to your terminal and issue the command: virsh start fedora1
  6. Check to see if your fedora1 VM is now running.
  7. Switch to the terminal and issue the command: virsh list --all and confirm the status of the fedora1 VM.
  8. There are other commands that can be used (such as suspend, or shutdown). The "shutdown" command may not always work since it sends a request to "shutdown virtual machine gracefully", but may not always work. Why do you think it is useful to have commands to manipulate VMs?
Virtual Machine Does not Shutdown from Command
If the Virtual machine fails to shutdown from the virsh shutdown command, then you can go to the Virtual Machine manager and halt or shutdown within the VM itself, then you can click the PowerOff button in the VM window. You'll want to avoid a forced shutdown since those are equivalent to yanking the cord out of the wall on a physical machine!

Answer the Investigation 5 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Investigation 6: How do I backup a virtual machine?

Backing up VMs
There are two general processes in order to back up your images:
  1. Compressing your images (also recommended to backup up to external storage USB Key) using the gzip command.
  2. Backup the VM xlm configuration file (preferably to USB key) using virsh shell command to add VM to virtual machine manager list (in the event that the HOST machine is "wiped" and re-installed, but VM images and xml configuration files have been backed up external storage).

Taking the time to backup the image of the Operating System's file system allows the user to return to a "restoration point" using the gunzip command in case something bad occurs to the OS during a lab.
Failure to take the time to make and confirm backups can result in loss of lab work for the student!
  1. Shut down all of the virtual machines.
  2. Change to the directory /var/lib/libvirt/images/. Note the size of the files in this directory. What do these files contain?
  3. Make a compressed backup of the fedora3.img file to your home directory with this command: gzip < fedora3.img > ~YourUserId/fedora3.img.backup.gz
    (Note: Make certain to use the redirection signs "<" and ">" properly in the command!)
Stop (medium size).png
Make sure the backup is successful!
If there are any error messages, DO NOT proceed past this point. You're going to destroy your fedora3 virtual machine and restore it using the backup you have created -- if there are any problems with the backup, you will not have a working virtual machine, and will have to re-install it.
  1. Compare the size of the compressed and original files.
  2. Start the fedora3 VM.
  3. Make certain that you are in your fedora VM and not in your Fedora main system!
  4. Wreck only your fedora 3 system! Try this command inside the fedora3 virtual machine: rm -rf /*
  5. Shut down the VM. If you tried to start the Fedora3 VM, it would not boot since all system files have been removed!
  6. Restore the original image from the backup in your home directory by typing this command: gunzip < ~YourUserId/fedora3.img.backup.gz > fedora3.img
  7. Restart the VM. Is it working normally?
  8. Create compressed backups of your other virtual machines.
  1. You should make a copy of the xml configuration file in case you "wipe" and re-install the host machine, and want to add a restored VM backups to the virtual machine manager list. We will demonstrate using the fedora 3 xml configuration file, and prove that a "clone" can be added to your list.Please perform the following step:
    1. Verify that you are in the directory: /var/lib/libvirt/images/.
    2. Execute the following command: virsh dumpxml fedora3 >fedora3.xml
    3. Examine the file fedora3.xml. What does it contain? What format is it in?
    4. Make a copy of fedora3.xml called fedora3a.xml.
    5. Edit the file fedora3a.xml, making the following changes:
    • Change the name (in the file, not the file name) to fedora3a
    • Change at least one of the hexadecimal characters in the UUID. Do not change the length of the UUID. Valid hexadecimal characters are 0-9 and a-f.
    1. Issue this command: virsh define fedora3a.xml
    2. Issue the command virsh list --all and record any changes.
    3. Issue the command: virsh undefine fedora3a
    4. List all of the virtual machines again, and note any changes.
  2. For the remainder of these labs, it is assumed that you will backup both the images and xml configuration files for all Virtual machines, when asked to backup your virtual machines. It is also highly recommended to backup these files to an external storage device (eg. USB key) in case the host machine gets "wiped" and you need to rebuild your HOST machine and then restore your Virtual Machines...
  3. Answer this question in your log book:
  • In order to fully back up a virtual machine, what information should be saved in addition to the virtual machine image?
Backing up VMs
It is essential to back up your VMs at the end of each lab, so you can easily restore them if something goes wrong in the next lab.
Shutting Down the Host while Virtual Machines are Running
If you shut down your host system while virtual machines are running, they will be suspended, and will resume the next time you boot your host system.

Answer the Investigation 6 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Investigation 7: Kickstart Files

SSHD and Firewall
If you have restarted your virtual machine fedora1, the sshd server you started in investigation 1 (step 15) will no longer be running. In addition, the firewall will have reverted to its original state. In order to use scp, below, you will need to restart ssh and adjust the firewall again.

If students cannot backup their kickstart files using the scp command, they can use a web-browser to access their Seneca e-mail with attachment (copy kickstart file to their home directory first!). For the text-based Linux system "fedora3", students can use the mail command (refer to the man command to learn how to send e-mail attachments).

When you perform a non-Kickstart installation, the installation program creates a Kickstart file in the /root directory for reference.

  1. Obtain the kickstart files for all four of your installations (your disk pack f19host, plus the fedora1, fedora2, and fedora3 virtual machines).
  2. To prevent confusion, copy your kickstart files to kickstart filenames that describe their purpose (eg. kickstart_host, kickstart_fedora1, kickstart_fedora2, etc...)
  3. Copy them all to your f19host system (tip: use scp), or use the hint in the tip box above to send via e-mail.
  4. Compare these files. What are the differences? Similarities? (Tip: you may want to use tools such as sdiff to help with the comparison).
  5. How could you use the kickstart file produced by the installation program to perform additional, identical installations?

Answer the Investigation 7 observations / questions in your lab log book.

Completing the Lab

Arrange evidence for each of these items on your screen, then ask your instructor to review them and sign off on the lab's completion:

  1. Three working virtual machines created.
  2. Four kickstart files.
  3. All virtual machines fully updated.
  4. All virtual machines backed up.
  5. Installation comparison table filled in.
  6. Lab Logbook (lab2) notes filled-in.

Preparing for Quizzes

  1. What is the name of the Fedora installation program?
  2. Which factors recorded in your table (above) were due to the type of installation performed, and which factors were due to the amount of software installed?
  3. Which type of installation works best for confirming compatibility with hardware before installation? Why?
  4. Which type of installation works best for installing large numbers of computers? Why?
  5. What factors affect installation time?
  6. How can you reduce the number of software updates required immediately after installation?
  7. Why would you enable additional repositories during installation?
  8. What does the file /root/anaconda-ks.cfg contain, and how is it created?
  9. How do you start and stop virtual machines?
  10. How do you SSH into your virtual machines?
  11. What is the purpose of and relationship between these pieces of software?
    • libvirt
    • libvirtd
    • virsh
    • virt-manager
    • virt-install
    • kvm
  12. The kickstart installation (fedora3) was a network installation. Can a kickstart file be used with a DVD installation?
  13. The kickstart installation (fedora3) was fairly fast. Why? Under what circumstances would it take a long time, even on a fast network?
  14. What other types of installation sources are possible (besides Live Disc, Installation Disc, and Network?)