Difference between revisions of "Fall 2014 SPO600 Weekly Schedule"

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|12||Nov 24||[[#Tuesday (Nov 25)|Project Update Presentations]]||[[Friday (Nov 28)|Discussion and hack session]]||[[#Week 12 Deliverables|Blog about your project status - 2nd project marks.]]
|12||Nov 24||[[#Tuesday (Nov 25)|Project Update Presentations]]||[[#Friday (Nov 28)|Discussion and hack session]]||[[#Week 12 Deliverables|Blog about your project status - 2nd project marks.]]
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* Upstream your changes/test results/documentation
* Upstream your changes/test results/documentation
* Blog about your work
* Blog about your work
* '''Note: Blogs will be marked as of Nov 21 11:59 pm'''
== Week 12 ==
== Week 12 ==
Line 335: Line 336:
* '''Remember: Final project submissions via blog are due 11:59 pm December 10.'''
* '''Remember: Final project submissions via blog are due 11:59 pm December 10.'''
== Carried Forward from previous semester -- Kept here for potential copypasta ==
=== Friday (Jan 17) ===
* [[SPO600 Compiled C Lab]]
== Deliverables ==
* Blog your conclusion to the [[SPO600 Compiled C Lab]]
== Week 3 ==
=== Tuesday (Jan 21) ===
* [[Assembler Basics]]
=== Friday (Jan 24) ===
* Background information: [[SPO600 aarch64 QEMU on Ireland]]
* [[SPO600 Assembler Lab]]
=== Week 3 Deliverables ===
* Blog your conclusion to the [[SPO600 Assembler Lab]]
== Week 4 ==
=== Tuesday (Jan 28) ===
* [[SPO600 Assembler Lab|Assembler Lab]] review
* [[Inline Assembly Language]]
* [[Compiler Optimizations]]
=== Friday (Jan 31) ===
* [[Codebase Analysis Lab]]
=== Week 4 Deliverables ===
* '''Reminder:''' Week 1-3 blog posts are due for marking on Friday, January 31.
* Blog about the [[Codebase Analysis Lab]]
== Week 5 ==
=== Tuesday (Feb 4) ===
Platform-specific code is often utilized for '''Memory Barriers''' and '''Atomics Operations'''.
=== Friday (Feb 7) ===
==== Hack Session: Potential Project Analysis ====
Select a project from the [[Winter 2014 SPO600 Software List]] and perform these steps:
# Edit that page to put your name in the "Claimed by" column.
# Investigate the package to determine:
#* If the current version has been built for ARM (e.g., exists in the Fedora aarch64 port - fastest way to test is to use 'yum' inside the arm64 emulation environment on Ireland)
#* What the platform-specific code in the software does
#* Whether portable work-arounds exist
#* The need for an aarch64 port or for platform-specific code elimination
#* Opportunities for optimization
#* The amount of work involved in porting and optimizing, and your skills for performing that work
# Based on the result of your investigation, decide on your interest in the project.
#* If you wish to choose this project for yourself, place it on your row in the [[Winter 2014 SPO600 Participants|Participants]] page.
#* If you do not wish to choose this project, remove your name from the "Claimed by" column in the [[Winter 2014 SPO600 Software List|Software List]] page.
# Repeat until you have two packages.
{{Admon/note|Overload|It is strongly recommended that you choose two projects with a total scope sum of 0-1. If you wist to try a higher or lower sum, or more or less than two projects, please talk to your professor.}}
{{Admon/tip|RPM Packages|For sofware that is present in the rpmfusion repositories but not in Fedora, you can use <code>yumdownloader --source ''packagename''</code> to grab the source RPM and then examine it using the RPM tools. See [[RPM Packaging Process]] for information.}}
=== Week 5 Deliverables ===
* Blog about your two selected projects, including your detailed initial analysis of them.
** You may want to break this into a couple of posts - e.g., post about your first package while you're working on your second.
** Feel free to also blog about why you did '''not''' choose particular packages, too.
== Week 6 ==
=== Tuesday (Feb 11) ===
* Architecture-specific code for Performance
** Sometimes assembler is used in a C/C++ program for performance. However, modern versions of C/C++ (such as C++11) and recent compilers provide portable ways of accessing high-performance processor capabilities, such as Single Instruction/Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions (called "marketing names" such as SSE, Neon, MMX, 3DNow, or AltaVec on various processors).
** Linaro enginener Matthew Gretton-Dann gave a good presentation on [http://www.linaro.org/linaro-blog/2013/09/20/introduction-to-porting-and-optimising-code/ Porting and Optimizing Code] for aarch64. The vectorization portion, beginning at 28:10, provides a good introduction to SIMD and autovectorization using GCC on aarch64 (Note that the earlier portion of the presentation includes good information about Atomics).
*** [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=epzYErIIx0Y YouTube Video] direct link
*** [http://www.linaro.org/assets/common/campus-party-presentation-Sept_2013.pdf Slides] direct link
** Note that in the presentation above, Matthew takes the code beyond portability without straying into assembler (e.g., using compiler-specific, architecture-specific intrinsics). It is possible to achieve almost all of the performance gains without becoming arch-specific, and most of those can be attained without becoming compiler-specific as well.
* For full details on the SIMD instructions in aarch64, refer to the [http://infocenter.arm.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.arm.doc.genc010197a/index.html ARMv8 Instruction Set Overview], particularly section 5.7.
=== Week 6 Deliverables ===
* Complete your analysis of your two selected software projects (if you haven't already) - see [[#Week 5|Week 5]]. Blog in detail about your findings.
* Identify the upstream communities that develop and maintain the software you have selected to work on. Figure out how they are structured, how they communicate, how code is maintained, and how patches are accepted. Introduce yourself to each of the two communities (one for each of the two software projects you have selected). Blog about your findings.
== Week 7 ==
* Project Work
== Week 8 ==
* Project Work ([[User:Chris Tyler|Chris Tyler]] is at [http://www.linaro.org/connect-lca14 Linaro Connect]) this week.
* Aim at getting your code changes upstream to your communities
== Week 9 ==
=== Tuesday (March 11) ===
* Status updates
* Update from Linaro Connect
* Discussion of useful tools
** screen
** time
=== Friday (March 14) ===
* Comparison of Emulation
** Fast Model and Foundation Model
* Install and configure the Foundation Model
** [[:fedora:Architectures/ARM/AArch64/QuickStart|Fedora AArch64 Quick Start]]
** [http://www.linaro.org/engineering/engineering-projects/armv8 Linaro Foundation Model Instructions]
* Baseline Benchmarking
==== Resources ====
* Foundation Model
** [http://www.arm.com/products/tools/models/fast-models/ ARM Fast Models] - Note that "fast" here refers to the modelling approach, not execution speed!
* Benchmarking
** [http://www.tokutek.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/20130424-percona-live-benchmarking.pdf Benchmarking Talk by Tim Callaghan]
=== Week 9 Deliverables ===
* Set up the Foundation Model
* Upstream your proposed code changes
* Blog about your work
== Week 10 ==
=== Tuesday (March 18) ===
* Profiling with <code>gprof</code>
** Build with profiling enabled (<code>-pg</code>)
** Run the profile-enabled executable
** Analyze the data in the <code>gmon.out</code> file
*** <code>gprof ''nameOfBinary''</code> # Displays text profile including call graph
*** <code>gprof ''nameOfBinary'' | gprof2dot | dot | display -</code> # Displays visualization of call graph
* [https://sourceware.org/binutils/docs-2.16/gprof/ GProf Manual]
* [http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2012/08/gprof-tutorial/ Profiling with GProf]
=== Friday (March 21) ===
* Gather baseline statistics for your software
=== Week 10 Deliverables ===
* Blog your baseline benchmark results

Latest revision as of 11:36, 18 November 2014

It's Alive!
This SPO600 weekly schedule will be updated as the course proceeds - dates and content are subject to change. The cells in the summary table will be linked to relevant resources and labs as the course progresses.

Summary Table

This is a summary/index table. Please follow the links in each cell for additional detail -- especially for the Deliverables column.

Week Week of... Tuesday Friday Deliverables
(Summary - click for details)
1 Sep 1 (Experience Seneca Orientation - No Class) Introduction to Software Porting, Portability, Benchmarking, and Optimization / How is code accepted into an open source project? Set up accounts and a Fedora system
2 Sep 8 Computer Architecture Overview Compiled C Lab Blog a commentary on code reviews in two communities (Lab 1) and on the Compiled C Code lab (Lab 2).
3 Sep 15 Linaro Connect 2014 - No classes scheduled - Prepare your presentation on assembly language code Assembly language presentation ready for presentation next Tuesday (September 23).
4 Sept 22 Assembly language presentations & Assembly Basics Assembly language presentations, continued Blog the content of your presentation
5 Sep 29 Assembly lab (Lab 3) Inline assembler and compiler optimizations / Potential Project Triage – Scan the potential project list from the Linaro Performance site Blog post about assembly lab (lab 3) and potential projects
6 Oct 6 Guest Speaker: Jon "Maddog" Hall Codebase analysis / Memory barriers and Atomics Analyze the platform-specific code in 3 packages.
7 Oct 13 Architecture-specific Code - Why? Compiler Intrinsics and Picking your Package Pick your package and blog about it.
Study Week Oct 20 Study Week
FSOSS 2014 on Thursday-Friday
8 Oct 27 Working with the Code Group hack session - Profiling Blog about your progress.
9 Nov 3 Profiling review Group hack session Post baseline stats for your software.
10 Nov 10 Presentations AArch64 on x86_64 / Hack session Blog about your project status - 1st project marks.
11 Nov 17 Discussion and hack session Discussion and hack session: Commercial vs. Technical Reality Upstream your work and blog about it
12 Nov 24 Project Update Presentations Discussion and hack session Blog about your project status - 2nd project marks.
13 Dec 1 Discussion and Hack Session Discussion and Hack Session Code accepted upstream. Blog about it!
Exam Week Dec 8 Exam Week - No exam in this course!


Category Percentage Evaluation Dates
Communication 20% September 30, October 31, November 21, December 10
Quizzes 10% May be held during any class, usually at the start of class. A minimum of 5 one-page quizzes will be given. No make-up/retake option is offered if you miss a quiz. Lowest 3 scores will not be counted.
Labs 10% See deliverables column above.
Project work 60% November 11 (15%), November 25 (20%), December 10 (25%)

Week 1

Friday (Sep 5)

Introduction to the Problem

  • Most software is written in a high-level language which can be compiled into machine code for a specific architecture. However, there is a lot of existing code that contains some architecture-specific code fragments written in Assembly Language (or, in some cases, machine-specific high-level code).
  • Reasons for writing code in Assembly Langauge include:
    • Performance
    • Atomic Operations
    • Direct access to hardware features, e.g., CPUID registers
  • Most of the historical reasons for including assembler are no longer valid. Modern compilers can out-perform most hand-optimized assembly code, atomic operations can be handled by libraries or compiler intrinsics, and most hardware access should be performed through the operating system or appropriate libraries.
  • A new architecture has appeared: Aarch64, which is part of ARMv8. This is the first new computer architecture to appear in several years (at least, the first mainstream computer architecture).
  • There are over 1400 software packages/modules present in GNU Linux systems which contain architecture-specific assembly language code or have other portability issues. Most of these packages cannot be built on Aarch64 systems without modification.

Course Projects

In this course, you will:

  1. Select two software packages from a list compiled by Steve Macintyre of Linaro. Each of the packages on this list contains assembly language code which is platform-specific.
  2. Prepare a fix/patch for the software so that it will run on 64-bit ARM systems (aarch64). This may be done at either of two levels:
    1. Port - Add additional assembly language code for aarch64 (basic solution).
    2. Make Portable - Remove architecture-specific code, replacing it with compiler intrinsics or high-level code so that the software will successfully build on multiple platforms.
  3. Benchmark - Prove that your changes do not cause a performance regression on existing platforms, and that (ideally) it improves performance.
  4. Upstream your Code - Submitting your code to the upstream (originating) software project so that it can be incorporated into future versions of the software. This will involve going through a code review to ensure that your code is compatible with and acceptable to the upstream community.

General Course Information

  • Course resources are linked from the CDOT wiki, starting at http://zenit.senecac.on.ca/wiki/index.php/SPO600 (Quick find: This page will usually be Google's top result for a search on "SPO600").
  • Coursework is submitted by blogging.
  • Quizzes will be short (1 page) and will be held without announcement at any time. Your lowest three quiz scores will not be counted, so do not worry if you miss one or two.
  • Course marks (see Weekly Schedule for dates):
    • 60% - Project Deliverables
    • 20% - Communication (Blog and Wiki writing)
    • 20% - Labs and Quizzes (10% labs - completed/not completed; 10% for quizzes - lowest 3 scores not counted)
  • All classes will be held in an Active Learning Classroom -- you are encouraged to bring your own laptop to class. If you do not have a laptop, consider signing one out of the Learning Commons for class, or using a smartphone with an HDMI adapter.
  • For more course information, refer to the SPO600 Weekly Schedule (this page), the Course Outline, and SPO600 Course Policies.

Discussion of how open source communities work

(Background for the Code Review Lab (Lab 1) which is homework due Week 2).

Week 1 Deliverables

  1. Set up your SPO600 Communication Tools - in particular, set up a blog and add it to Planet CDOT (via the Planet CDOT Feed List).
  2. Add yourself to the Fall 2014 SPO600 Participants page (leave the projects columns blank).
  3. Generate a pair of keys for SSH and email the public key to your professor.
  4. Sign and return the Open Source Professional Option Student Agreement.
  5. Set up a Fedora 20 system.

Week 2

Tuesday (Sep 9)

Friday (Sep 12)

Bring Your Laptop
Classes are held in a Active Learning Classroom. If you have a laptop or other device with a VGA or HDMI output (such as a smartphone!) please bring it. You'll need either a local linux environment or an SSH client -- which is built-in to Linux, Mac, and Chromebook systems, and readily available for Windows, Android, and iOS devices.

Week 2 Deliverables

Week 3

This week your professor is at Linaro Connect, an engineering conference run by Linaro - a distributed not-for-profit collaborative technology company focused on Linux on ARM. You can participate remotely and may find some of the sessions interesting.

Week 3 Deliverables

  • Be prepared to give your presentation on Tuesday of next week (September 23).

Week 4

Tuesday (Sep 23)

Friday (Sep 26)

Week 4 Deliverables

Week 5

Tuesday (Sep 30)

Friday (Oct 3)

The Linaro Performance Challenge is a project initiated by Jon "Maddog" Hall and Linaro to port or make portable open source software packages which contain platform-specific code and which may not build on the new Aarch64 architecture.

(There are two videos about the challenge, both of which are from late 2013 while the program was being finalized: One of an interview with Maddog and Steve Macintyre, and the other of a Linaro Connect presentation by Maddog).

The list of packages for this project was originally developed by the UK Debian developer Steve Macintyre, who works for Linaro. His focus in developing that list was to find packages that contained assembly language code for x86 (or other platforms) and which did not have assembly language code for ARM, especially Aarch64. As a result, the list includes many false-positives: there are many packages on there that can successfully build on ARM, either due to C work-arounds for the missing assembly code, or conditional compilation of the assembly code, or recent updates to the software, or other reasons.

In this class, we're going to start to triage this list by analyzing which packages exist in the Fedora package set and which have been successfully built for the aarch64 architecture.

The list has been processed with these steps:

  1. Grab the list of packages from the Linaro Performance Challenge site.
  2. Find out the corresponding names of the packages in the Fedora package set. Most of these will be the same as in the list, but some may be different.
  3. Find out which packages have not been built for Fedora on aarch64
  4. Divide the resulting list up between the members of the class for further analysis

Please see the Fall 2014 SPO600 Packages by Participant and perform the steps listed there.

Participating in the Linaro Performance Challenge
You are invited to participate in the Linaro Performance Challenge directly, utilizing the work you are doing in the SPO600 course. Doing so may enable you to receive a prize for participation and the chance to win a trip to a Linaro Connect conference. In order to participate in the Challenge, you will need to comply with the technical requirements and rules of the Challenge.

Your participation in this course, and the mark you receive in this course, are independent of your participation in the Linaro Performance Challenge.

In other words: Linaro and Seneca are distinct entities, and although you can participate in both the Challenge and SPO600 with the same project, Seneca assumes no responsibility for your interaction with Linaro, and vice-versa.

Week 5 Deliverables

Week 6

Tuesday (Oct 7)

Jon "Maddog" Hall will be joining us for a remote talk and Q&A via Google Hangout.

Friday (Oct 10)

In groups, we'll be analyzing software pacakges from the Packages by Participant list to find the platform-specific code and build instructions.

Week 6 Deliverables

  • Pick three additional packages (not the ones done in class) from your section of the Packages by Participant list and find the platform-specific code (or build instructions). Figure out what that code does, and document that on the list page. Blog about your results and your reflections on the task.

Week 7

Tuesday (Oct 14)

Discussion of some of the reasons that platform specific (usually assembly language) code is used in software

Memory Barriers

Memory Barriers ensure that memory accesses are sequenced so that multiple threads, processes, cores, or IO devices see a predictable view of memory.


Atomics are operations which must be completed in a single step (or appear to be completed in a single step) without potential interruption.

  • Wikipedia has a good basic overview of the need for atomicity in the article on Linerarizability

Friday (Oct 17)

Week 7 Deliverables

  1. Select at least two software packages from the Linaro performance web site and/or the Packages page.
  2. Record your choice on:
    1. The Participants page - so that your colleagues in class know that you're working on the package(s). Note: Package choices will be approved by your professor, but will usually be accepted on a first-come, first-served basis.
    2. The Linaro performance web site - this will tell other people outside of our group within the Linux-on-ARM community that you are working on the package(s).
  3. Investigate and blog about your choice.

Over reading week:

  1. Contact the upstream communities for the packages you have selected -- so that they know that you are working on the package and to open a channel of communication for your forthcoming patches (or benchmarks, or other results).
  2. Formulate a work plan that will conclude with landing your software changes in the upstream software before the end of the course.
  3. Blog about your work plan and what you need to investigate/learn in order to complete your project.

Week 8

Tuesday (Oct 28)

Working with the Code

  • Working with GIT
  • Working with other version control systems

Looking at How Distributions Package the Code

  • Using fedpkg

Friday (Oct 31)

  • Benchmarking and Profiling
  • Profiling with gprof
    • Build with profiling enabled (use the option -pg with both gcc and ld)
    • Run the profile-enabled executable
    • Analyze the data in the gmon.out file
      • gprof nameOfBinary # Displays text profile including call graph
      • gprof nameOfBinary | gprof2dot | dot | display - # Displays visualization of call graph


Week 8 Deliverables

  • Blog about your progress connecting with the communities associated with your projects and working with the code.

Week 9

= Tuesday (Nov 4)

  • Profiling/baseline benchmarking review
  • Hacking session

Friday (Nov 7)

  • Hacking session

Week 9 Deliverables

  • Blog about your baseline benchmarking/profiling.

Week 10

Tuesday (Nov 11)

  • Presentation on your project status

Friday (Nov 14)

Week 10 Deliverables

  • Blog about your project status

Week 11

Tuesday (Nov 18)

Friday (Nov 21)

  • Discussion and hack session

Week 11 Deliverables

  • Upstream your changes/test results/documentation
  • Blog about your work
  • Note: Blogs will be marked as of Nov 21 11:59 pm

Week 12

Tuesday (Nov 25)

  • Project update presentations

Friday (Nov 28)

  • Discussion and hack session: Commercial vs. Technical Reality

Week 13

Tuesday (Dec 2)

  • Discussion and hack session

Friday (Dec 5)

  • Wrap-up session
  • Remember: Final project submissions via blog are due 11:59 pm December 10.